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      Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the Management of Lupus Nephritis

      1 , * , 2

      Autoimmune Diseases

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          The occurrence of nephritis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of lupus nephritis is complex, involving innate and adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses. Autoantibodies in particular have been shown to be critical in the initiation and progression of renal injury, via interactions with both Fc-receptors and complement. One approach in the management of patients with lupus nephritis has been the use of intravenous immunoglobulin. This therapy has shown benefit in the setting of many forms of autoantibody-mediated injury; however, the mechanisms of efficacy are not fully understood. In this paper, the data supporting the use of immunoglobulin therapy in lupus nephritis will be evaluated. In addition, the potential mechanisms of action will be discussed with respect to the known involvement of complement and Fc-receptors in the kidney parenchyma. Results are provocative and warrant additional clinical trials.

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          Most cited references 154

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          IgG Fc receptors.

          Since the description of the first mouse knockout for an IgG Fc receptor seven years ago, considerable progress has been made in defining the in vivo functions of these receptors in diverse biological systems. The role of activating Fc gamma Rs in providing a critical link between ligands and effector cells in type II and type III inflammation is now well established and has led to a fundamental revision of the significance of these receptors in initiating cellular responses in host defense, in determining the efficacy of therapeutic antibodies, and in pathological autoimmune conditions. Considerable progress has been made in the last two years on the in vivo regulation of these responses, through the appreciation of the importance of balancing activation responses with inhibitory signaling. The inhibitory FcR functions in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, in regulating the threshold of activation responses, and ultimately in terminating IgG mediated effector stimulation. The consequences of deleting the inhibitory arm of this system are thus manifested in both the afferent and efferent immune responses. The hyperresponsive state that results leads to greatly magnified effector responses by cytotoxic antibodies and immune complexes and can culminate in autoimmunity and autoimmune disease when modified by environmental or genetic factors. Fc gamma Rs offer a paradigm for the biological significance of balancing activation and inhibitory signaling in the expanding family of activation/inhibitory receptor pairs found in the immune system.
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            Intravenous gammaglobulin suppresses inflammation through a novel T(H)2 pathway.

            High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin is a widely used therapeutic preparation of highly purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. It is administered at high doses (1-2 grams per kilogram) for the suppression of autoantibody-triggered inflammation in a variety of clinical settings. This anti-inflammatory activity of intravenous immunoglobulin is triggered by a minor population of IgG crystallizable fragments (Fcs), with glycans terminating in α2,6 sialic acids (sFc) that target myeloid regulatory cells expressing the lectin dendritic-cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN; also known as CD209). Here, to characterize this response in detail, we generated humanized DC-SIGN mice (hDC-SIGN), and demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory activity of intravenous immunoglobulin can be recapitulated by the transfer of bone-marrow-derived sFc-treated hDC-SIGN(+) macrophages or dendritic cells into naive recipients. Furthermore, sFc administration results in the production of IL-33, which, in turn, induces expansion of IL-4-producing basophils that promote increased expression of the inhibitory Fc receptor FcγRIIB on effector macrophages. Systemic administration of the T(H)2 cytokines IL-33 or IL-4 upregulates FcγRIIB on macrophages, and suppresses serum-induced arthritis. Consistent with these results, transfer of IL-33-treated basophils suppressed induced arthritic inflammation. This novel DC-SIGN-T(H)2 pathway initiated by an endogenous ligand, sFc, provides an intrinsic mechanism for maintaining immune homeostasis that could be manipulated to provide therapeutic benefit in autoimmune diseases. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved
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              Activating and inhibitory IgG Fc receptors on human DCs mediate opposing functions.

              Human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) and circulating conventional DCs coexpress activating (CD32a) and inhibitory (CD32b) isoforms of IgG Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR) II (CD32). The balance between these divergent receptors establishes a threshold of DC activation and enables immune complexes to mediate opposing effects on DC maturation and function. IFN-gamma most potently favors CD32a expression on immature DCs, whereas soluble antiinflammatory concentrations of monomeric IgG have the opposite effect. Ligation of CD32a leads to DC maturation, increased stimulation of allogeneic T cells, and enhanced secretion of inflammatory cytokines, with the exception of IL-12p70. Coligation of CD32b limits activation through CD32a and hence reduces the immunogenicity of moDCs even for a strong stimulus like alloantigen. Targeting CD32b alone does not mature or activate DCs but rather maintains an immature state. Coexpression of activating and inhibitory FcgammaRs by DCs reveals a homeostatic checkpoint for inducing tolerance or immunity by immune complexes. These findings have important implications for understanding the pathophysiology of immune complex diseases and for optimizing the efficacy of therapeutic mAbs. The data also suggest novel strategies for targeting antigens to the activating or inhibitory FcgammaRs on human DCs to generate either antigen-specific immunity or tolerance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Autoimmune Dis
                Autoimmune Dis
                AD
                Autoimmune Diseases
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-0422
                2090-0430
                2012
                27 September 2012
                : 2012
                Affiliations
                1Department of Pediatrics, Renal Section, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Street, Suite 260, Houston, TX 77030, USA
                2University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004, USA
                Author notes
                *Scott E. Wenderfer: wenderfe@ 123456bcm.edu

                Academic Editor: Ricard Cervera

                Article
                10.1155/2012/589359
                3465901
                23056926
                Copyright © 2012 S. E. Wenderfer and T. Thacker.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Immunology

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