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      The clinical course of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis after 3 months of anticoagulant therapy using fondaparinux/edoxaban or fondaparinux/vitamin K antagonist

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          For the management of venous thromboembolism (VTE), providing anticoagulant therapy within the therapeutic range has been a major challenge, as conventional therapy with unfractionated heparin (UFH) and vitamin K antagonist (VKA) requires frequent laboratory monitoring and dose adjustment. Recently, fondaparinux and edoxaban are being used as beneficial alternatives to UFH and VKA.


          We evaluated the clinical course of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients who received the 3-month anticoagulation therapy with fondaparinux/edoxaban (Group A; n=40) in comparison with the findings from our previous experience of patients who received the fondaparinux/VKA combination (Group B; n=33).


          In both Groups A and B, serum D-dimer was significantly improved after treatment ( p<0.001). The thrombus volume assessed by quantitative ultrasound thrombosis (QUT) score was significantly reduced in both groups ( p<0.001). There was no difference in the proportion of patients who were normalized (ie, disappearance of DVT) between the groups, although Group A had significantly more patients who were normalized or improved (ie, disappearance and reduction of DVT) ( p<0.001). No bleeding event was observed in either group. However, in one patient in Group B, worsening of DVT and development of symptomatic PE were observed.


          Fondaparinux/edoxaban therapy is as effective as fondaparinux/VKA. This treatment has the possible advantage in thrombus regression. This would be a beneficial therapeutic option for both patients and physicians.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin thromboprophylaxis: a meta-analysis.

          Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an uncommon but potentially devastating complication of anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). Our objective was to determine and compare the incidences of HIT in surgical and medical patients receiving thromboprophylaxis with either UFH or LMWH. All relevant studies identified in the MEDLINE database (1984-2004), not limited by language, and from reference lists of key articles were evaluated. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials comparing prophylaxis with UFH and LMWH and measuring HIT or thrombocytopenia as outcomes were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data on thromboprophylaxis (type, dose, frequency, and duration), definition of thrombocytopenia, HIT assay, and rates of the following outcomes: HIT, thrombocytopenia, and thromboembolic events. HIT was defined as a decrease in platelets to less than 50% or to less than 100 x 10(9)/L and positive laboratory HIT assay. Fifteen studies (7287 patients) were eligible: 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) measuring HIT (1014 patients), 3 prospective studies (1464 patients) with nonrandomized comparison groups in which HIT was appropriately measured in both groups, and 10 RCTs (4809 patients) measuring thrombocytopenia but not HIT. Three analyses were performed using a random effects model and favored the use of LMWH: (1) RCTs measuring HIT showed an odds ratio (OR) of 0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.2; P = .03); (2) prospective studies measuring HIT showed an OR of 0.10 (95% CI, 0.03-0.33; P < .001); (3) all 15 studies measured thrombocytopenia. The OR was 0.47 (95% CI, 0.22-1.02; P = .06). The inverse variance-weighted average that determined the absolute risk for HIT with LMWH was 0.2%, and with UFH the risk was 2.6%. Most studies were of patients after orthopedic surgery.
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            Subcutaneous fondaparinux versus intravenous unfractionated heparin in the initial treatment of pulmonary embolism.

            The standard initial treatment of hemodynamically stable patients with pulmonary embolism is intravenous unfractionated heparin, requiring laboratory monitoring and hospitalization. We conducted a randomized, open-label trial involving 2213 patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism to compare the efficacy and safety of the synthetic antithrombotic agent fondaparinux with those of unfractionated heparin and to document noninferiority in terms of efficacy. Patients received either fondaparinux (5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 mg in patients weighing less than 50, 50 to 100, or more than 100 kg, respectively) subcutaneously once daily or a continuous intravenous infusion of unfractionated heparin (ratio of the activated partial-thromboplastin time to a control value, 1.5 to 2.5), both given for at least five days and until the use of vitamin K antagonists resulted in an international normalized ratio above 2.0. The primary efficacy outcome was the three-month incidence of the composite end point of symptomatic, recurrent pulmonary embolism (nonfatal or fatal) and new or recurrent deep-vein thrombosis. Forty-two of the 1103 patients randomly assigned to receive fondaparinux (3.8 percent) had recurrent thromboembolic events, as compared with 56 of the 1110 patients randomly assigned to receive unfractionated heparin (5.0 percent), for an absolute difference of -1.2 percent in favor of fondaparinux (95 percent confidence interval, -3.0 to 0.5). Major bleeding occurred in 1.3 percent of the patients treated with fondaparinux and 1.1 percent of those treated with unfractionated heparin. Mortality rates at three months were similar in the two groups. Of the patients in the fondaparinux group, 14.5 percent received the drug in part on an outpatient basis. Once-daily, subcutaneous administration of fondaparinux without monitoring is at least as effective and is as safe as adjusted-dose, intravenous administration of unfractionated heparin in the initial treatment of hemodynamically stable patients with pulmonary embolism. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism and deep vein thrombosis (JCS 2009).


                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                23 February 2018
                : 14
                : 377-383
                Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Sakura City, Chiba, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kazuhiro Shimizu, Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, 561-4 Shimoshizu, Sakura City, Chiba 285-8741, Japan, Tel +81 43 462 8811, Fax +81 43 462 8820, Email k432@ 123456sakura.med.toho-u.ac.jp
                © 2018 Shimizu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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