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      Diseño de un alimento infantil listo para consumir fortificado con hierro a base de arveja (Pisum sativum) Translated title: Design of a ready-to-eat child food fortified with pea-based iron (Pisum sativum)

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          Abstract

          Resumen Introducción: La deficiencia de hierro es uno de los problemas nutricionales más prevalentes a nivel mundial y afecta principalmente a la población vulnerable como niños menores de 5 años. Los alimentos fortificados de consumo infantil hacen parte de las estrategias de intervención y se elaboran a partir de la mezcla ingredientes como cereales, frutas, leguminosas, entre otros. La arveja, es una leguminosa que puede ser empleada con el fin de aprovechar sus propiedades nutricionales. Objetivo: Diseñar un alimento infantil con arveja (Pisum sativum) listo para consumir, fortificado con hierro e higienizado por pasteurización. Materiales y métodos: Se seleccionó el porcentaje de arveja adecuado en el alimento mediante análisis sensorial. La selección de la sal de hierro se realizó mediante análisis fisicoquímico y sensorial empleando sulfato ferroso y hierro aminoquelado. Posteriormente se evaluó el crecimiento de microorganismos mesófilos con el fin de seleccionar el tratamiento térmico de pasteurización. La evaluación de vida útil se llevó a cabo a través de pruebas sensoriales. Finalmente se realizó la evaluación fisicoquímica, composicional y microbiológica del alimento higienizado. Resultados: La adición de arveja en porcentajes no mayores al 6,5% dentro de la formulación del alimento resultó aceptable para los padres de niños menores de 5 años. Por otra parte la sal seleccionada por generar menos cambios sobre el color y la acidez del alimento durante el almacenamiento fue hierro aminoquelado. Los resultados de tratamiento térmico mostraron que para reducir la concentración inicial de mesófilos y obtener un alimento de buena calidad de acuerdo con la normativa colombiana vigente fue necesario someter el alimento a 85°C durante 13 minutos (0,45 D), con lo que se consiguió mantener la calidad inicial del alimento durante 12 días bajo refrigeración. Conclusiones: El alimento desarrollado cumple con los criterios sensoriales y microbiológicos exigidos en la normativa colombiana vigente y es apto para el consumo, además se puede catalogar como alto en hierro y buena fuente de proteína, aportando el 25% y el 15% de la recomendación diaria en Colombia respectivamente.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract Introduction: Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent nutritional problems at the global level which mainly affects the vulnerable population as children under 5 years of age. Fortified foods of child consumption are part of the intervention strategies, which are made from the mixture of ingredients such as cereals, fruits, legumes, among others. Pea is a legume that can be used in order to take advantage of its nutritional properties. Objective: To design a ready-to-eat child food with peas (Pisum sativum), fortified with iron and sanitized by pasteurization. Materials and methods: The appropriate percentage of peas in the food was selected by sensory analysis. The selection of iron salt was made by physicochemical and sensory analysis using ferrous sulphate and chelate iron. Subsequently, the growth of mesophilic microorganisms was evaluated in order to select the pasteurization heat treatment. The useful life evaluation was carried out through sensory tests. Finally, the physico-chemical, compositional and microbiological evaluation of the sanitized food was implemented. Results: The addition of peas in percentages not greater than 6.5% within the food formulation was acceptable for parents of children under 5. On the other hand, the selected salt to generate less changes on the color and acidity of the food during storage was chelate iron. The results of heat treatment showed that for reducing the initial concentration of mesophiles and obtaining a good quality food according to the Colombian regulations in force, it was necessary to submit the food to 85 °C for 13 minutes (0.45 D), which managed to maintain the initial quality of the food for 12 days under refrigeration. Conclusions: The developed food complies with the sensory and microbiological criteria demanded in the Colombian regulations in force and is suitable for consumption. Besides, it can be catalogued as high in iron and a good source of protein, contributing with 25% and 15% of the daily recommendation in Colombia, respectively.

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          Most cited references 49

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          The effect of sugar, amino acid, metal ion, and NaCl on model Maillard reaction under pH control.

           S-I Lim,  E-J Kwak (2004)
          The color intensities was determined of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) prepared by heating each of five sugars (maltose, fructose, glucose, arabinose, and xylose) with each of 12 amino acids (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, proline, serine, cysteine, phenylalanine, arginine, and lysine). The remaining percentages of glucose and rate of change of color intensity due to the addition of a metal ion and NaCl were monitored for nine MRPs that had been formed between glucose and each of nine amino acids (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, valine, serine, cysteine, phenylalanine, arginine, and lysine). Model MRPs were prepared in a block heater at 100 degrees C for 1-12 h with the pH value controlled at 6.5. The resulting color intensity of each MRPs formed from the basic amino acids was greater due to the higher reactivity than those from the acidic amino acids. The remaining percentage of glucose in each MRPs from the basic amino acids was lower than those from the acidic amino acids. The MRPs from the nonpolar amino acids showed an intermediate color intensity and remaining percentages of glucose between those formed from the basic and acidic amino acids. Browning tended to be accelerated in the presence of metal ions, especially Fe2+ and Cu2+, although it was affected by the property of the amino acid and heating time as well as by the type of metal ion. On the other hand, browning was greatly inhibited by a high concentration of NaCl.
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            Scientific and technical aspects of yogurt fortification: A review

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              Principios de orientación para la alimentación complementaria del niño amamantado

               K. Dewey (2003)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                reus
                Universidad y Salud
                Rev Univ. salud.
                Universidad de Nariño (Pasto, Nariño, Colombia )
                0124-7107
                January 2018
                : 20
                : 1
                : 4-15
                Affiliations
                San Juan de Pasto Nariño orgnameUniversidad de Nariño orgdiv1Facultad de Ingeniería Agroindustrial Colombia
                S0124-71072018000100004
                10.22267/rus.182001.104

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 49, Pages: 12
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                Product Information: SciELO Colombia

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