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      Spontaneous perinephric haemorrhage and acute renal failure in pregnancy due to cocaine intoxication

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          Abstract

          Cocaine abuse may contribute to the diverse forms of renal injury. We report a case of a pregnant woman who developed a large subcapsular renal haematoma after cocaine intoxication at 18-week gestation. She stabilized on conservative management and presented again at 29-week gestation with pre-eclampsia, acute renal failure and fetal demise. She required caesarean section delivery and intensive antihypertensive therapy to control severe pre-eclampsia associated with cocaine intoxication. This case is unique in that it is the first report of cocaine intoxication in pregnancy complicated by subcapsular haemorrhage. We discuss the possible mechanisms for the occurrence of this complication.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Etiology of spontaneous perirenal hemorrhage: a meta-analysis.

          We determine the most common etiology of spontaneous perirenal hemorrhage. A MEDLINE search of the English language literature from 1985 to 1999 revealed 47 publications and 165 cases of spontaneous renal hemorrhage meeting our study entry criteria. These criteria were presentation of raw data including imaging modality, pathological confirmation (123 cases) or long-term (greater than 2 years) (42) imaging and/or clinical followup and no history of recent trauma, anticoagulant use, dialysis or renal transplant. Meta-analysis was performed using analysis of counts derived from contingency tables and pooled and stratified analysis. Hemorrhage was identified by ultrasound in 56 of 100 cases (56%) and by computerized tomography (CT) in all 135 cases assessed (100%). Etiology was correctly identified with an overall sensitivity and specificity of 0.11 and 0.33 for ultrasound and 0.57 and 0.82 for CT. Angiography in 81 cases revealed active bleeding in 11. The most common etiology of spontaneous renal hemorrhage was benign or malignant neoplasm (101 cases, 61%) with angiomyolipoma being predominant (48) followed closely by renal cell carcinoma (43). Vascular disease was the next most common offender (28 cases, 17%) with polyarteritis nodosa occurring most frequently (20). The most common cause of spontaneous perirenal hemorrhage is renal neoplasm and approximately 50% of such neoplasms are malignant. CT is the method of choice for evaluation of perirenal hemorrhage, although its sensitivity for detection of underlying etiology is only moderate.
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            Cocaine and the kidney: a synthesis of pathophysiologic and clinical perspectives.

            Cocaine abuse has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, and several forms of renal disease have been associated with this widespread use. The hemodynamic actions of cocaine, as well as its effects on matrix synthesis, glomerular inflammation, and glomerulosclerosis, may contribute to renal injury. Cocaine abuse has been associated with various forms of acute renal failure and acid-base and/or electrolyte disorders and may also have a role in the progression of chronic renal failure to end-stage renal disease. In utero exposure to cocaine has been associated with urogenital tract anomalies. Medical management of a hypertensive emergency caused by acute cocaine toxicity requires a multisystem approach, with close monitoring of cardiac, neurological, and renal functions.
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              Handbuck der Pathologie und Therapie

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NDT Plus
                NDT Plus
                ckj
                ndtplus
                NDT Plus
                Oxford University Press
                1753-0784
                1753-0792
                June 2010
                28 February 2010
                28 February 2010
                : 3
                : 3
                : 265-268
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, Nashville General Hospital, 1818 Albion Street, Nashville, TN, USA
                [2 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nashville General Hospital, 1818 Albion Street, Nashville, TN, USA
                Author notes
                Chike M. Nzerue; E-mail: cmnzerue@ 123456aol.com
                Article
                sfq015
                10.1093/ndtplus/sfq015
                5477950
                © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                Categories
                Case Report

                Nephrology

                acute renal failure, cocaine abuse, pre-eclampsia, subcapsular haemorrhage

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