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      Human adenoviruses of subgenera B, C, and E with various tropisms differ in both binding to and replication in the epithelial A549 and 293 cells.


      Virus Replication, Tumor Cells, Cultured, Tropism, pharmacology, Recombinant Proteins, immunology, Receptors, Vitronectin, Humans, Genotype, Genetic Vectors, virology, Epithelial Cells, Cell Membrane, Cell Line, Capsid Proteins, Capsid, Binding, Competitive, Antigens, Viral, Antibodies, physiology, metabolism, drug effects, Adenoviridae

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          Adenoviruses of six subgenera, namely, adenovirus 31 (Ad31) (subgenus A), Ad3, Ad7, Ad11p, Ad11a, and Ad35 (subgenus B), Ad5v and Ad5p (subgenus C), Ad37 (subgenus D), Ad4 (subgenus E), and Ad41 (subgenus F), were studied. The relative binding properties of different adenoviruses to 293 (human kidney embryonic cells) and A549 (human lung carcinoma cells) cells were compared by flow cytometry. All analyzed adenoviruses bound to cells in a dose-dependent manner. The binding capacity showed that Ad11p, Ad35 (subgenus B:2) with kidney tropism, and Ad4 (subgenus E), which can cause adenopharyngoconjunctivitis, bound strongly to both A549 and 293 cells. The other members of subgenus B and Ad37 of subgenus D manifested an intermediate binding capacity. The analyzed adenoviruses of subgenera A, C, and F manifested a low affinity. Adenoviruses of subgenera B:2 and E manifested high binding affinity to preparations of cell membranes from the epithelial cell lines. Reciprocal competition experiments using Ad11p and Ad4 demonstrated that the two viruses did not block each other. Antibodies against alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 reduced the binding of Ad5v virions and slightly impaired the binding of Ad4 but did not affect Ad11p binding to the A549 cell surface. Recombinant fiber proteins of Ad11p and Ad35 reciprocally blocked the binding of both viruses to the epithelial cells but they could not block Ad4. The hexon protein expression of Ad11p and Ad4 was 100 times more efficient than that of the Ad5 vector (pFG140), whereas the infectivity of Ad11p and Ad4 was 40- to 200-fold that of the commonly used Ad5v vector. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Ad11p and Ad4 bind different receptor molecules and that the fibers of these two viruses provide the predominant high degree of binding, which obviously is a requirement for subsequent internalization and efficacious expression.

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