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      Transition metal binding selectivity in proteins and its correlation with the phylogenomic classification of the cation diffusion facilitator protein family

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      1 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 1 , 2 , 3 ,
      Scientific Reports
      Nature Publishing Group UK

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          Abstract

          Divalent d-block metal cations (DDMCs), such as Fe, Zn and Mn, participate in many biological processes. Understanding how specific DDMCs are transported to and within the cell and what controls their binding selectivity to different proteins is crucial for defining the mechanisms of metalloproteins. To better understand such processes, we scanned the RCSB Protein Data Bank, performed a de novo structural-based comprehensive analysis of seven DDMCs and found their amino acid binding and coordination geometry propensities. We then utilized these results to characterize the correlation between metal selectivity, specific binding site composition and phylogenetic classification of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) protein family, a family of DDMC transporters found throughout evolution and sharing a conserved structure, yet with different members displaying distinct metal selectivity. Our analysis shows that DDMCs differ, at times significantly, in terms of their binding propensities, and that in each CDF clade, the metal selectivity-related binding site has a unique and conserved sequence signature. However, only limited correlation exists between the composition of the DDMC binding site in each clade and the metal selectivity shown by its proteins.

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          Most cited references36

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          The SWISS-MODEL Repository and associated resources

          SWISS-MODEL Repository (http://swissmodel.expasy.org/repository/) is a database of 3D protein structure models generated by the SWISS-MODEL homology-modelling pipeline. The aim of the SWISS-MODEL Repository is to provide access to an up-to-date collection of annotated 3D protein models generated by automated homology modelling for all sequences in Swiss-Prot and for relevant models organisms. Regular updates ensure that target coverage is complete, that models are built using the most recent sequence and template structure databases, and that improvements in the underlying modelling pipeline are fully utilised. As of September 2008, the database contains 3.4 million entries for 2.7 million different protein sequences from the UniProt database. SWISS-MODEL Repository allows the users to assess the quality of the models in the database, search for alternative template structures, and to build models interactively via SWISS-MODEL Workspace (http://swissmodel.expasy.org/workspace/). Annotation of models with functional information and cross-linking with other databases such as the Protein Model Portal (http://www.proteinmodelportal.org) of the PSI Structural Genomics Knowledge Base facilitates the navigation between protein sequence and structure resources.
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            Evaluation of comparative protein modeling by MODELLER.

            We evaluate 3D models of human nucleoside diphosphate kinase, mouse cellular retinoic acid binding protein I, and human eosinophil neurotoxin that were calculated by MODELLER, a program for comparative protein modeling by satisfaction of spatial restraints. The models have good stereochemistry and are at least as similar to the crystallographic structures as the closest template structures. The largest errors occur in the regions that were not aligned correctly or where the template structures are not similar to the correct structure. These regions correspond predominantly to exposed loops, insertions of any length, and non-conserved side chains. When a template structure with more than 40% sequence identity to the target protein is available, the model is likely to have about 90% of the mainchain atoms modeled with an rms deviation from the X-ray structure of approximately 1 A, in large part because the templates are likely to be that similar to the X-ray structure of the target. This rms deviation is comparable to the overall differences between refined NMR and X-ray crystallography structures of the same protein.
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              Structure of the zinc transporter YiiP.

              YiiP is a membrane transporter that catalyzes Zn2+/H+ exchange across the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Mammalian homologs of YiiP play critical roles in zinc homeostasis and cell signaling. Here, we report the x-ray structure of YiiP in complex with zinc at 3.8 angstrom resolution. YiiP is a homodimer held together in a parallel orientation through four Zn2+ ions at the interface of the cytoplasmic domains, whereas the two transmembrane domains swing out to yield a Y-shaped structure. In each protomer, the cytoplasmic domain adopts a metallochaperone-like protein fold; the transmembrane domain features a bundle of six transmembrane helices and a tetrahedral Zn2+ binding site located in a cavity that is open to both the membrane outer leaflet and the periplasm.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                zarivach@bgu.ac.il
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                27 November 2017
                27 November 2017
                2017
                : 7
                : 16381
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0511, GRID grid.7489.2, Department of Life Sciences, , Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, ; Beer Sheva, 8410501 Israel
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0511, GRID grid.7489.2, The National Institute for Biotechnology in the Negev, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, ; Beer Sheva, 8410501 Israel
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0511, GRID grid.7489.2, Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, ; Beer Sheva, 8410501 Israel
                Article
                16777
                10.1038/s41598-017-16777-5
                5703985
                29180655
                439b1a29-6eec-48ec-9e51-5e53f918f8a8
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 21 September 2017
                : 17 November 2017
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