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      Intravenous Calcitriol Improves Anaemia and Reduces the Need for Erythropoietin in Haemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          In cases with severe hyperparathyroidism, anaemia improves after parathyroidectomy. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of treatment with intravenous calcitriol on anaemia in 28 haemodialysis patients. The patients showed moderate to severe hyperparathyroidism (mean parathyroid hormone level 811.6 ± 327 pg/ml) and were treated with calcitriol (2 µg i.v.) after haemodialysis. The follow-up period was 12 months. 21 out of the 28 patients had been receiving erythropoietin (EPO) prior to calcitriol administration; the remaining 7 did not receive EPO. 24 patients received oral or intravenous iron. The doses of EPO and iron were modified throughout the study period to maintain a haematocrit equal to or higher than 30% and ferritin levels above 150 ng/ml, respectively. EPO needs were evaluated according to the relation EPO dose/haematocrit. We found a significant rise in haematocrit and haemoglobin at 3 and 12 months on calcitriol therapy, with no modification of the EPO dose nor ferritin levels. This improvement in anaemia was observed both in those patients who received EPO initially (p < 0.01) and in those who did not (p < 0.05). Upon dividing the patients according to the response of hyperparathyroidism to the intravenous calcitriol treatment, we observed in the responding patients (n = 19) significant increases in haematocrit (from 31.7 ± 4.2 to 36.3 ± 4.9%) and haemoglobin (from 10.6 ± 1.5 to 12.2 ± 1.5 g/dl; p < 0.001) at 12 months on intravenous calcitriol therapy, while this was not true of the non-responding patients. The EPO needs diminished in the group of responding patients and increased in the non-responders, although these changes were not statistically significant. We found no direct correlation between the decrease of parathyroid hormone and EPO needs in the group of responding patients. However, an inverse correlation between parathyroid hormone levels and EPO needs (r = –0.799, p < 0.05) was seen in the group of non-responding patients. Treatment with intravenous calcitriol in patients on haemodialysis controls secondary hyperparathyroidism, improves anaemia, and decreases the need for EPO. Studies including a larger number of patients are necessary to clarify the mechanisms underlying the improvement of anaemia upon control of secondary hyperparathyroidism with intravenous calcitriol treatment and to confirm our findings.

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          Effect of serum parathyroid hormone and bone marrow fibrosis on the response to erythropoietin in uremia.

          Anemia is common in patients with chronic renal insufficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Erythropoietin therapy is effective, but the dose required varies greatly. One possible determinant of the efficacy of erythropoietin therapy is the extent of marrow fibrosis caused by hyperparathyroidism. We examined the relation between the erythropoietic response to erythropoietin and hyperparathyroidism in a cross-sectional study of 18 patients undergoing hemodialysis who had received erythropoietin therapy for one to three years. In 7 patients (the poor-response group), the dose of intravenous erythropoietin needed to maintain a mean (+/- SD) target hematocrit of 35 +/- 3 percent was > 100 units per kilogram of body weight three times a week, and in 11 patients (the good-response group) it was < or = 100 units per kilogram. In all patients, indexes of the adequacy of dialysis and the extent of hyperparathyroidism and aluminum toxicity were determined monthly, and bone histomorphometry was performed. The mean (+/- SD) dose of erythropoietin required to maintain the target hematocrit was 174 +/- 33 units per kilogram three times a week in the poor-response group and 56 +/- 18 units per kilogram in the good-response group. The mean ages, duration and adequacy of dialysis, increment in hematocrit, iron requirements, and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and aluminum were similar in the two groups. The percentages of osteoid volume and surface, the osteoid thickness, and the stainable aluminum content of bone were similar in the two groups. In contrast, the mean serum parathyroid hormone concentration, the percentages of osteoclastic and eroded bone surfaces, and the degree of marrow fibrosis were greater in the poor-response group than in the good-response group (P = 0.03, P = 0.04, P = 0.009, and P = 0.009, respectively). In patients with uremia, the dose of erythropoietin needed to achieve an adequate hematocrit response may depend on the severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism and the extent of bone marrow fibrosis.
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            Effect of parathyroidectomy on anemia in chronic renal failure

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              Author and article information

              Journal
              NEF
              Nephron
              10.1159/issn.1660-8151
              Nephron
              S. Karger AG
              1660-8151
              2235-3186
              1998
              January 1998
              19 December 1997
              : 78
              : 1
              : 23-27
              Affiliations
              a Fundación Renal Iñigo Alvarez de Toledo y b Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, España
              Article
              44877 Nephron 1998;78:23–27
              10.1159/000044877
              9453399
              © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Tables: 3, References: 27, Pages: 5
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/44877
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              Original Paper

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