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      Effects of Vitamins E, A and D on MDA, GSH, NO Levels and SOD Activities in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats

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          Background: Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the process of progressive renal injury in a variety of clinical and experimental renal diseases. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that treatment with vitamins decreases renal injury in chronic renal failure (CRF). Methods: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: group 1, control; group 2, 5/6 nephrectomy (CRF); other groups 5/6 nephrectomy and injected vitamins (E, A, D). After 8 weeks, urea, creatinine and renal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined. Results: Renal tissue MDA levels were significantly lower in the control and Vit E groups compared to that of the CRF, Vit A and Vit D groups. GSH levels were significantly higher in the control group compared to that of other groups. However, GSH levels were significantly lower in the control group than those in the other groups. SOD activities of the control group were significantly higher than those in the other groups. SOD activities were significantly decreased in the Vit E group compared to the Vit A and Vit D groups. Tissue NO levels of control group were significantly increased compared to the other groups. Conclusion: According to this study, Vit E may at least in part prevent tissue injury by acting as a free radical scavenger.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Regulation of enzymes of the urea cycle and arginine metabolism.

          The urea cycle is comprised of five enzymes but also requires other enzymes and mitochondrial amino acid transporters to function fully. The complete urea cycle is expressed in liver and to a small degree also in enterocytes. However, highly regulated expression of several enzymes present in the urea cycle occurs also in many other tissues, where these enzymes are involved in synthesis of nitric oxide, polyamines, proline and glutamate. Glucagon, insulin, and glucocorticoids are major regulators of the expression of urea cycle enzymes in liver. In contrast, the "urea cycle" enzymes in nonhepatic cells are regulated by a wide range of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines and other agents. Regulation of these enzymes is largely transcriptional in virtually all cell types. This review emphasizes recent information regarding roles and regulation of urea cycle and arginine metabolic enzymes in liver and other cell types.
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            Oxidative stress and dysregulation of superoxide dismutase and NADPH oxidase in renal insufficiency.

            Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with oxidative stress, the mechanism of which remains uncertain. Superoxide is the primary oxygen free radical produced in the body, NAD(P)H oxidase is the major source of superoxide production and superoxide dismutase (SOD) is responsible for removal of superoxide. We hypothesized that CRF-induced oxidative stress may be due to increased production and/or decreased dismutation of superoxide. Immunodetectable superoxide dismutase isoforms (Cu Zn SOD and Mn SOD), as well as, NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91 phox subunit) proteins and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity were determined in the kidney and liver of CRF (5/6 nephrectomized) and sham-operated control rats. Subgroups of animals were treated with SOD-mimetic drug, tempol and blood pressure and urinary nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) were monitored. The CRF group showed marked down-regulations of CuZn SOD and Mn SOD and significant up-regulation of gp91 phox in the liver and kidney, which are among the metabolically most active tissues. In contrast, XO activity was depressed in both tissues. Arterial pressure and nitrotyrosine abundance were elevated while urinary NOx excretion was depressed, pointing to increased NO inactivation by superoxide and decreased NO availability in CRF animals. Administration of SOD-mimetic agent, tempol, for one week, ameliorated hypertension, reduced nitrotyrosine abundance and increased urinary NOx excretion in the CRF animals. CRF is associated with depressed SOD and elevated NAD(P)H oxidase expression, which can contribute to oxidative stress by increasing superoxide. This is evidenced by favorable response to administration of SOD-mimetic drug, tempol, and increased nitrotyrosine that is the footprint of NO interaction with superoxide.
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              Effect of 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 on glomerulosclerosis in subtotally nephrectomized rats.

              In the past, there has been considerable concern that treatment with active vitamin D might accelerate progression independent of hypercalcemia and hypercalcuria. Nevertheless, 1,25(OH)2D3 has known antiproliferative properties and has also been shown to inhibit renal growth. Since glomerular growth is a permissive factor for the development of glomerulosclerosis, we reasoned that 1,25(OH)2D3 might even attenuate progression. To test this working hypothesis we performed two experiments of 8 and 16 weeks duration, respectively, to compare subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) rats treated with ethanol and SNX treated with 1,25(OH)2D3. Control animals were sham operated and pair-fed with SNX animals. 1,25(OH)2D3 (3 ng/100 g body wt/day) was administered by osmotic minipump. 1,25(OH)2D3 had no significant effect on systolic blood pressure and only a transient effect on weight gain. SNX reduced the number of glomeruli (left kidney) from an average of 3.3 x 10(4) to 1.2 x 10(4) per kidney. Mean glomerular volume was 3.87 +/- 0.71 x 10(6) microns 3 in sham operated animals and significantly (P < 0.05) higher (10.1 +/- 1.75 x 10(6) microns 3) in untreated animals 16 weeks after SNX. Glomerular volume was significantly (P < 0.05) less in 1,25(OH)2D3 treated SNX [10.1 +/- 1.75 in ethanol vs. 7.04 +/- 1.78 in 1,25(OH)2D3 treated SNX]. In parallel, there was significantly (P < 0.01) less glomerulosclerosis [glomerulosclerosis index 1.16 +/- 0.14 in the ethanol treated SNX vs. 0.80 +/- 0.16 in SNX treated with 1,25(OH)2D3] in the eight week experiment. Albuminuria was significantly (P < 0.01) lower in 1,25(OH)2D3 treated than in ethanol treated SNX (mean 0.785 mg/24 hr, range 0.43 to 1.80, vs. 3.75 mg/24 hr, 1.29 to 14.2). The morphological data were directionally analogous in a second 16 week experiment. Only slight changes of the vascular sclerosis index and tubulointerstitial index were seen in SNX and were not affected by 1,25(OH)2D3 further. To prove that the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 was independent of PTH, parathyreoidectomized SNX rats without or with 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment were examined seven days post-SNX. PCNA staining showed suppression of cell proliferation. Furthermore, in situ hybridization for transforming growth factor-B (TGF-beta) showed less vascular and tubular expression in 1,25(OH)2D3 treated rats. We conclude that 1,25(OH)2D3 has antiproliferative actions during the compensatory growth of nephrons in response to subtotal nephrectomy. These effects are independent of PTH. The data document that 1,25(OH)2D3 reduces renal cell proliferation and glomerular growth as well as glomerulosclerosis and albuminuria as indicators of progressive glomerular damage.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                October 2005
                12 October 2005
                : 25
                : 5
                : 441-446
                Departments of aMedical Biochemistry and bPediatric Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey
                87825 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:441–446
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 40, Pages: 6
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                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation


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