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      Strategic review of interface carrier recombination in earth abundant Cu–Zn–Sn–S–Se solar cells: current challenges and future prospects

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          Abstract

          The article presents a strategic review of secondary phases, defects and defect-complexes in kesterite CZTSSe solar cells responsible for performance gap compared to CIGS solar cells.

          Abstract

          Earth abundant Cu–Zn–Sn–S–Se (CZTSSe) is considered as a promising material for large area and cost effective solar energy harvesting. The current efficiency of CZTSSe champion solar cell, ∼12.7%, is much lower than that of its counterpart Cu–In–Ga–Se (CIGS) solar cell, ∼22.6%, and its theoretically predicted Shockley–Queisser (SQ) limit, ∼32%. This performance disparity is because of a large voltage deficit, ∼0.62 V, in comparison to the optical band gap that primarily results from high carrier recombination at the charge extraction interfaces. The different physical and chemical properties of interfacial layers often cause unfavorable band alignment and interfacial states that lead to high carrier recombination and eventually result in lower device efficiency. To obtain new insights about interfaces and to overcome the interface-related pitfalls, research on interface engineering of solar cells is rapidly accelerating and proven beneficial to achieve better device efficiency. This work provides a detailed strategic review on carrier transport and carrier recombination mechanisms by probing different interfaces of Mo/CZTSSe/CdS/i-ZnO/Al–ZnO/Al through every possible aspect. This review proposes eccentric approaches of carrier management.

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          Most cited references108

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          Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor

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            Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of p-n Junction Solar Cells

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              Photovoltaics. Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells.

              Advancing perovskite solar cell technologies toward their theoretical power conversion efficiency (PCE) requires delicate control over the carrier dynamics throughout the entire device. By controlling the formation of the perovskite layer and careful choices of other materials, we suppressed carrier recombination in the absorber, facilitated carrier injection into the carrier transport layers, and maintained good carrier extraction at the electrodes. When measured via reverse bias scan, cell PCE is typically boosted to 16.6% on average, with the highest efficiency of ~19.3% in a planar geometry without antireflective coating. The fabrication of our perovskite solar cells was conducted in air and from solution at low temperatures, which should simplify manufacturing of large-area perovskite devices that are inexpensive and perform at high levels. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                JMCAET
                Journal of Materials Chemistry A
                J. Mater. Chem. A
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2050-7488
                2050-7496
                2017
                2017
                : 5
                : 7
                : 3069-3090
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Functional and Renewable Energy Materials Laboratory
                [2 ]Department of Physics
                [3 ]Indian Institute of Technology Ropar
                [4 ]India
                Article
                10.1039/C6TA10543B
                43b189cc-4a67-464d-9e46-28345e5ef3c8
                © 2017
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C6TA10543B

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