+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The Biomechanics Effect of Hamstring Flexibility on the Risk of Osgood-Schlatter Disease


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          The relationship between hamstring flexibility and the risk of OSD continues to be a debate, and whether hamstring stretching exercises should be considered as one of the conservative treatments of OSD is still unclear.


          To investigate the relationship between hamstring flexibility and the risk of OSD by assessing the changes of loading on the tibial tuberosity caused by the changes of hamstring optimal lengths.


          Experimental data of a young adult running at 4 m/s were used, which were collected by an eight-camera motion capture system together with an instrumented treadmill. Muscle forces were estimated in OpenSim when hamstring optimal lengths changed in the range of 70–130% of the control case in 5% increments. The force and accumulated force of quadriceps muscle were calculated to evaluate the impact of hamstring optimal lengths on the loading on tibial tuberosity. The changes in muscle forces throughout the gait cycle were compared by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The average peak force and accumulated force of five gait cycles were compared.


          Although the maximum force of the quadriceps muscle was slightly affected by changes in hamstring optimal lengths, the accumulated force of quadriceps muscle increased by 21.97% with hamstring optimal lengths decreased by 30% of the control case. The increase of the muscle force mainly occurred in the early stance phase and terminal swing phase ( P < 0.05). However, when hamstring optimal lengths were longer than the control, it had a little effect on accumulated force of quadriceps muscle.


          The results of this study indicate that a shorter hamstring optimal length, which means lack of flexibility, can cause a high accumulated force on tibial tuberosity, thus increasing the risk of OSD. Hamstring stretching exercise is only effective for people with lack of hamstring flexibility.

          Related collections

          Most cited references43

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          OpenSim: open-source software to create and analyze dynamic simulations of movement.

          Dynamic simulations of movement allow one to study neuromuscular coordination, analyze athletic performance, and estimate internal loading of the musculoskeletal system. Simulations can also be used to identify the sources of pathological movement and establish a scientific basis for treatment planning. We have developed a freely available, open-source software system (OpenSim) that lets users develop models of musculoskeletal structures and create dynamic simulations of a wide variety of movements. We are using this system to simulate the dynamics of individuals with pathological gait and to explore the biomechanical effects of treatments. OpenSim provides a platform on which the biomechanics community can build a library of simulations that can be exchanged, tested, analyzed, and improved through a multi-institutional collaboration. Developing software that enables a concerted effort from many investigators poses technical and sociological challenges. Meeting those challenges will accelerate the discovery of principles that govern movement control and improve treatments for individuals with movement pathologies.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Statistical parametric maps in functional imaging: A general linear approach

              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping in Python.

              Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is a topological methodology for detecting field changes in smooth n-dimensional continua. Many classes of biomechanical data are smooth and contained within discrete bounds and as such are well suited to SPM analyses. The current paper accompanies release of 'SPM1D', a free and open-source Python package for conducting SPM analyses on a set of registered 1D curves. Three example applications are presented: (i) kinematics, (ii) ground reaction forces and (iii) contact pressure distribution in probabilistic finite element modelling. In addition to offering a high-level interface to a variety of common statistical tests like t tests, regression and ANOVA, SPM1D also emphasises fundamental concepts of SPM theory through stand-alone example scripts. Source code and documentation are available at: www.tpataky.net/spm1d/.

                Author and article information

                J Healthc Eng
                J Healthc Eng
                Journal of Healthcare Engineering
                9 May 2022
                : 2022
                : 3733218
                1Key Laboratory of Human Motion Analysis and Rehabilitation Technology of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, Beijing Advanced Innovation Centre for Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China
                2State Key Laboratory of Virtual Reality Technology and System, Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Daniel H.K. Chow

                Author information
                Copyright © 2022 Xueying Zhang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 30 January 2022
                : 17 April 2022
                : 19 April 2022
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 12072019
                Research Article


                Comment on this article