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Structural and magnetic properties of multi-core nanoparticles analysed using a generalised numerical inversion method

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      Abstract

      The structural and magnetic properties of magnetic multi-core particles were determined by numerical inversion of small angle scattering and isothermal magnetisation data. The investigated particles consist of iron oxide nanoparticle cores (9 nm) embedded in poly(styrene) spheres (160 nm). A thorough physical characterisation of the particles included transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. Their structure was ultimately disclosed by an indirect Fourier transform of static light scattering, small angle X-ray scattering and small angle neutron scattering data of the colloidal dispersion. The extracted pair distance distribution functions clearly indicated that the cores were mostly accumulated in the outer surface layers of the poly(styrene) spheres. To investigate the magnetic properties, the isothermal magnetisation curves of the multi-core particles (immobilised and dispersed in water) were analysed. The study stands out by applying the same numerical approach to extract the apparent moment distributions of the particles as for the indirect Fourier transform. It could be shown that the main peak of the apparent moment distributions correlated to the expected intrinsic moment distribution of the cores. Additional peaks were observed which signaled deviations of the isothermal magnetisation behavior from the non-interacting case, indicating weak dipolar interactions.

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          Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

          Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with appropriate surface chemistry have been widely used experimentally for numerous in vivo applications such as magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement, tissue repair, immunoassay, detoxification of biological fluids, hyperthermia, drug delivery and in cell separation, etc. All these biomedical and bioengineering applications require that these nanoparticles have high magnetization values and size smaller than 100 nm with overall narrow particle size distribution, so that the particles have uniform physical and chemical properties. In addition, these applications need special surface coating of the magnetic particles, which has to be not only non-toxic and biocompatible but also allow a targetable delivery with particle localization in a specific area. To this end, most work in this field has been done in improving the biocompatibility of the materials, but only a few scientific investigations and developments have been carried out in improving the quality of magnetic particles, their size distribution, their shape and surface in addition to characterizing them to get a protocol for the quality control of these particles. Nature of surface coatings and their subsequent geometric arrangement on the nanoparticles determine not only the overall size of the colloid but also play a significant role in biokinetics and biodistribution of nanoparticles in the body. The types of specific coating, or derivatization, for these nanoparticles depend on the end application and should be chosen by keeping a particular application in mind, whether it be aimed at inflammation response or anti-cancer agents. Magnetic nanoparticles can bind to drugs, proteins, enzymes, antibodies, or nucleotides and can be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumour using an external magnetic field or can be heated in alternating magnetic fields for use in hyperthermia. This review discusses the synthetic chemistry, fluid stabilization and surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, as well as their use for above biomedical applications.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department CITIMAC, Faculty of Science, University of Cantabria , 39005 Santander, Spain
            [2 ]Healthcare Biomagnetics Laboratory, University College London , 21 Albemarle Street, London, W1S 4BS, UK
            [3 ]Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt , Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin, Germany
            [4 ]Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung (BAM) , Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin, Germany
            [5 ]Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology , al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
            [6 ]ISIS-STFC Neutron Scattering Facility, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus , Didcot, OXON, OX11 0QX, UK
            [7 ]SOLVE Research and Consultancy AB , Lund, Sweden
            [8 ]Lund Centre for Field-Flow Fractionation, Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University , Sweden
            [9 ]Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology , 41296 Göteborg, Sweden
            [10 ]SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces Unit, 11486 Stockholm , Sweden
            [11 ]RISE Acreo , 40014 Göteborg, Sweden
            Author notes
            Journal
            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group
            2045-2322
            11 April 2017
            2017
            : 7
            5387715
            srep45990
            10.1038/srep45990
            Copyright © 2017, The Author(s)

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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