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      Tuberculosis in Maintenance Dialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          In this investigation, we tried to find the incidence and characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) in dialysis patients previously found only in a small number of cases. We collected the cases of newly diagnosed TB patients in Taiwan during 1997. Simultaneously, all dialysis patients were collected and matched with the TB cases to identify the dialysis patients who had also contracted TB. The annual incidence of the dialysis population was 493.4/100,000, 6.9 times that of the general population (71.1/100,000). The annual incidence for the male dialysis population was 573.3, the incidence was 479.2 for the female dialysis population. The incidence for the general population was 97.1 and 43.7/100,000, respectively. Although the 1-year mortality rate due to TB (1.7 vs. 1.9%, p > 0.05) was similar in both populations, the non-TB mortality was much higher in the dialysis population than that in the general population (25.6 vs. 11.1%, p < 0.05). Finally, the 1-year mortality rate of dialysis patients with TB is 3.3 times higher than that in dialysis patients without TB (27.3 vs. 8.3%, p < 0.05). The findings suggest that uremia modifies the behavior of TB, jeopardizes female and younger dialysis patients, poses a higher risk of extrapulmonary dissemination, and predicts a higher overall mortality.

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          Tuberculosis in Active Dialysis Patients in Jeddah

          The incidence of tuberculosis in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia remains high. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of Tuberculosis among haemodialysis patients, since they are highly susceptible to this infection. A retrospective study, over a 5-year period, was carried out in the Renal Units of two large hospitals in Jeddah. Diagnosis was established by Ziehl Neelsen microscopy and culture of specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen media, radiological and histological examinations. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 17 of 210 patients on hemodialysis. Pulmonary tuberculosis was present in 10 cases and tuberculous lymphadenitis in 8 cases. One patient had both pulmonary and lymph node involvement while another one had both pulmonary and peritoneal tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in sputum in 5 cases, by lymph node histopathology in 5 cases, and combined radiological and clinical evidence in the remaining patients. The Mantoux test was positive in 9 (60%) cases. Eight patients were diabetics (47%) and there appears to be some association of tuberculosis with diabetes in patients on dialysis. Treatment with first-line anti-tuberculosis agents was continued for 6–18 months. Fourteen (82%) patients were completely cured while 3 showed clinical improvement only. The study showed that successful therapy of tuberculosis in this group of dialysis patients could be achieved but high index of suspicion is required to recognize the unusual presentation in this group of patients so that early diagnosis can be achieved and prompt treatment instituted. Diabetic patients presenting for dialysis, in areas with high endemicity for tuberculosis, chemoprophylaxis with anti-tuberculosis agents should be considered.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            NEF
            Nephron
            10.1159/issn.1660-8151
            Nephron
            S. Karger AG
            1660-8151
            2235-3186
            2001
            2001
            25 May 2001
            : 88
            : 2
            : 138-143
            Affiliations
            aDepartment of Medicine, Section of Nephrology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Kaohsiung; bDepartment of Internal Medicine, Taipei University affiliated Wang-Fang Hospital, Taipei; cKaohsiung Municipal Hsio-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University and Taiwan Society of Nephrology, Kaohsiung, and dDepartment of Medicine, Section of Nephrology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine and Taiwan Society of Nephrology, Taipei, Taiwan
            Article
            45974 Nephron 2001;88:138–143
            10.1159/000045974
            11399916
            © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 20, Pages: 6
            Product
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45974
            Categories
            Original Paper

            Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

            Dialysis, Tuberculosis, Uremia

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