More than half of the population of Colombia is settled in the Magdalena River basin, resulting in high deforestation rates due to productive activities and urbanisation. Within this scenario of forest loss and ecosystem degradation, it is imperative to record and monitor the biodiversity in order to decrease and mitigate the negative consequences of human activities on species and ecosystems. For six years, we assessed the mammal species richness, abundance and activity patterns in premontane forests of the Magdalena River basin in the Department of Caldas, Colombia. We also presented additional information on the geographical affinities of this fauna. We recorded 101 species, seven of them endemic to Colombia, with Chiroptera being the richest order, followed by Rodentia. Most of the species are common and not listed in threatened categories and only four are vulnerable and two endangered, according to the Red List of the IUCN and the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible of Colombia. The mammalian fauna of the study area is similar to that of other lowland localities in the Neotropics and different to the fauna in highland localities, including the nearby ones. Specifically, this fauna was most similar to that in lowland Tolima and the Caribbean Region of Colombia, Venezuela and Costa Rica; however, when we accounted only for bat fauna, it was more similar to the fauna in Caribbean and Pacific Regions of Colombia. To secure the long-term persistence of these species, we recommend maintenance of the current corridors, such as riparian forests and living fences and an increase in the forested area.