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      Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Burden Is Associated With Poststroke Depressive Symptoms: A 15-Month Prospective Study

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          Objective: All types of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) markers including lacune, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were found to be associated with poststroke depressive symptoms (PDS). This study explored whether the combination of the four markers constituting an overall SVD burden was associated with PDS.

          Methods: A cohort of 563 patients with acute ischemic stroke were followed over a 15-month period after the index stroke. A score of ≥7 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale was defined as clinically significant PDS. Scores of the four SVD markers ascertained on magnetic resonance imaging were summed up to represent total SVD burden. The association between SVD burden and PDS was assessed with generalized estimating equation models.

          Results: The study sample had a mean age of 67.0 ± 10.2 years and mild-moderate stroke [National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score: 3, interquartile, 1–5]. PDS were found in 18.3%, 11.6%, and 12.3% of the sample at 3, 9, and 15 months after stroke, respectively. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, vascular risk factors, social support, stroke severity, physical and cognitive functions, and size and locations of stroke, the SVD burden was associated with an increased risk of PDS [odds ratio = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.07–1.58; p = 0.010]. Other significant predictors of PDS were time of assessment, female sex, smoking, number of acute infarcts, functional independence, and social support.

          Conclusion: SVD burden was associated with PDS examined over a 15-month follow-up in patients with mild to moderate acute ischemic stroke.

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          Most cited references 47

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            Neuroimaging standards for research into small vessel disease and its contribution to ageing and neurodegeneration

            Summary Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common accompaniment of ageing. Features seen on neuroimaging include recent small subcortical infarcts, lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, perivascular spaces, microbleeds, and brain atrophy. SVD can present as a stroke or cognitive decline, or can have few or no symptoms. SVD frequently coexists with neurodegenerative disease, and can exacerbate cognitive deficits, physical disabilities, and other symptoms of neurodegeneration. Terminology and definitions for imaging the features of SVD vary widely, which is also true for protocols for image acquisition and image analysis. This lack of consistency hampers progress in identifying the contribution of SVD to the pathophysiology and clinical features of common neurodegenerative diseases. We are an international working group from the Centres of Excellence in Neurodegeneration. We completed a structured process to develop definitions and imaging standards for markers and consequences of SVD. We aimed to achieve the following: first, to provide a common advisory about terms and definitions for features visible on MRI; second, to suggest minimum standards for image acquisition and analysis; third, to agree on standards for scientific reporting of changes related to SVD on neuroimaging; and fourth, to review emerging imaging methods for detection and quantification of preclinical manifestations of SVD. Our findings and recommendations apply to research studies, and can be used in the clinical setting to standardise image interpretation, acquisition, and reporting. This Position Paper summarises the main outcomes of this international effort to provide the STandards for ReportIng Vascular changes on nEuroimaging (STRIVE).
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              Measurements of acute cerebral infarction: a clinical examination scale.

              We designed a 15-item neurologic examination stroke scale for use in acute stroke therapy trials. In a study of 24 stroke patients, interrater reliability for the scale was found to be high (mean kappa = 0.69), and test-retest reliability was also high (mean kappa = 0.66-0.77). Test-retest reliability did not differ significantly among a neurologist, a neurology house officer, a neurology nurse, or an emergency department nurse. The stroke scale validity was assessed by comparing the scale scores obtained prospectively on 65 acute stroke patients to the patients' infarction size as measured by computed tomography scan at 1 week and to the patients' clinical outcome as determined at 3 months. These correlations (scale-lesion size r = 0.68, scale-outcome r = 0.79) suggested acceptable examination and scale validity. Of the 15 test items, the most interrater reliable item (pupillary response) had low validity. Less reliable items such as upper or lower extremity motor function were more valid. We discuss methods for improving the reliability and validity of brief examination scales to be used in stroke therapy trials.

                Author and article information

                Front Aging Neurosci
                Front Aging Neurosci
                Front. Aging Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                28 February 2018
                : 10
                1Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong, Hong Kong
                2Department of Neurology, Dongguan People’s Hospital , Dongguan, China
                3Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong, Hong Kong
                4Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong, Hong Kong
                5Graylands Hospital, The University of Notre Dame Australia , Perth, WA, Australia
                6Department of Psychiatry, Chonnam National University Hospital , Gwangju, South Korea
                7Shenzhen Research Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong , Shenzhen, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Aurel Popa-Wagner, University of Rostock, Germany

                Reviewed by: Raluca Sandu Vintilescu, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania; Danny J. J. Wang, University of Southern California, United States

                *Correspondence: Wai-Kwong Tang, tangwk@
                Copyright © 2018 Liang, Chen, Mok, Wang, Ungvari, Chu, Kang and Tang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 47, Pages: 7, Words: 0
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