Mitochondria are highly dynamic and regulated organelles that historically have been defined based on their crucial role in cell metabolism. However, they are implicated in a variety of other important functions, making mitochondrial dysfunction an important axis in several pathological contexts. Despite that conventional biochemical and molecular biology approaches have provided significant insight into mitochondrial functionality, innovative techniques that provide a global view of the mitochondrion are still necessary. Proteomics fulfils this need by enabling accurate, systems-wide quantitative analysis of protein abundance. More importantly, redox proteomics approaches offer unique opportunities to tackle oxidative stress, a phenomenon that is intimately linked to aging, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In addition, cutting-edge proteomics approaches reveal how proteins exert their functions in complex interaction networks where even subtle alterations stemming from early pathological states can be monitored. Here, we describe the proteomics approaches that will help to deepen the role of mitochondria in health and disease by assessing not only changes to mitochondrial protein composition but also alterations to their redox state and how protein interaction networks regulate mitochondrial function and dynamics. This review is aimed at showing the reader how the application of proteomics approaches during the last 20 years has revealed crucial mitochondrial roles in the context of aging, neurodegenerative disorders, metabolic disease, and cancer.