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      Does the Presence of Significant Mitral Regurgitation prior to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation for Aortic Stenosis Impact Mortality? – Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

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          Abstract

          Background: Mitral regurgitation (MR) is commonly encountered in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). However, its independent impact on mortality in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has not been established. Methods: We performed a systematic search for studies reporting characteristics and outcome of patients with and without significant MR and/or adjusted mortality associated with MR post-TAVI. We conducted a meta-analysis of quantitative data. Results: Seventeen studies with 20,717 patients compared outcomes and group characteristics. Twenty-one studies with 32,257 patients reported adjusted odds of mortality associated with MR. Patients with MR were older, had a higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, a higher incidence of prior myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, and a trend towards higher NYHA class III/IV, but had similar mean gradient, gender, and chronic kidney disease. The MR patients had a higher unadjusted short-term (RR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.30–1.65) and long-term mortality (RR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.18–1.65). However, 16 of 21 studies with 27,777 patients found no association between MR and mortality after adjusting for baseline variables. In greater than half of the patients (0.56, 95% CI 0.45–0.66) MR improved by at least one grade following TAVI. Conclusion: The patients with MR undergoing TAVI have a higher burden of risk factors which can independently impact mortality. There is a lack of robust evidence supporting an increased mortality in MR patients, after adjusting for other compounding variables. MR tends to improve in the majority of patients post-TAVI.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Two-year outcomes after transcatheter or surgical aortic-valve replacement.

          The Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) trial showed that among high-risk patients with aortic stenosis, the 1-year survival rates are similar with transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical replacement. However, longer-term follow-up is necessary to determine whether TAVR has prolonged benefits. At 25 centers, we randomly assigned 699 high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis to undergo either surgical aortic-valve replacement or TAVR. All patients were followed for at least 2 years, with assessment of clinical outcomes and echocardiographic evaluation. The rates of death from any cause were similar in the TAVR and surgery groups (hazard ratio with TAVR, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 1.15; P=0.41) and at 2 years (Kaplan-Meier analysis) were 33.9% in the TAVR group and 35.0% in the surgery group (P=0.78). The frequency of all strokes during follow-up did not differ significantly between the two groups (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.67 to 2.23; P=0.52). At 30 days, strokes were more frequent with TAVR than with surgical replacement (4.6% vs. 2.4%, P=0.12); subsequently, there were 8 additional strokes in the TAVR group and 12 in the surgery group. Improvement in valve areas was similar with TAVR and surgical replacement and was maintained for 2 years. Paravalvular regurgitation was more frequent after TAVR (P<0.001), and even mild paravalvular regurgitation was associated with increased late mortality (P<0.001). A 2-year follow-up of patients in the PARTNER trial supports TAVR as an alternative to surgery in high-risk patients. The two treatments were similar with respect to mortality, reduction in symptoms, and improved valve hemodynamics, but paravalvular regurgitation was more frequent after TAVR and was associated with increased late mortality. (Funded by Edwards Lifesciences; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00530894.).
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            Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for the treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis in patients at very high or prohibitive surgical risk: acute and late outcomes of the multicenter Canadian experience.

            The aim of this study was: 1) to evaluate the acute and late outcomes of a transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) program including both the transfemoral (TF) and transapical (TA) approaches; and 2) to determine the results of TAVI in patients deemed inoperable because of either porcelain aorta or frailty. Very few data exist on the results of a comprehensive TAVI program including both TA and TF approaches for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis in patients at very high or prohibitive surgical risk. Consecutive patients who underwent TAVI with the Edwards valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Inc., Irvine, California) between January 2005 and June 2009 in 6 Canadian centers were included. A total of 345 procedures (TF: 168, TA: 177) were performed in 339 patients. The predicted surgical mortality (Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score) was 9.8 +/- 6.4%. The procedural success rate was 93.3%, and 30-day mortality was 10.4% (TF: 9.5%, TA: 11.3%). After a median follow-up of 8 months (25th to 75th interquartile range: 3 to 14 months) the mortality rate was 22.1%. The predictors of cumulative late mortality were peri-procedural sepsis (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48 to 8.28) or need for hemodynamic support (HR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.11 to 6), pulmonary hypertension (PH) (HR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.17 to 3), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (HR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.38 to 3.84), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (HR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.09 to 2.83). Patients with either porcelain aorta (18%) or frailty (25%) exhibited acute outcomes similar to the rest of the study population, and porcelain aorta patients tended to have a better survival rate at 1-year follow-up. A TAVI program including both TF and TA approaches was associated with comparable mortality as predicted by surgical risk calculators for the treatment of patients at very high or prohibitive surgical risk, including porcelain aorta and frail patients. Baseline (PH, COPD, CKD) and peri-procedural (hemodynamic support, sepsis) factors but not the approach determined worse outcomes. Copyright 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Development and Validation of a Risk Prediction Model for In-Hospital Mortality After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

              Patient selection for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) should include assessment of the risks of TAVR compared with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Existing SAVR risk models accurately predict the risks for the population undergoing SAVR, but comparable models to predict risk for patients undergoing TAVR are currently not available and should be derived from a population that underwent TAVR.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2020
                July 2020
                27 May 2020
                : 145
                : 7
                : 428-438
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Cardiology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
                bJohn H. Stroger Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois, USA
                cDivision of Cardiology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA
                Author notes
                *Ankur Sethi, 125 Paterson Street, 6th floor, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (USA), drankursethi@gmail.com
                Article
                506624 Cardiology 2020;145:428–438
                10.1159/000506624
                32460301
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Valvular Heart Disease: Systematic Review

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