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      Cystine Transport Activity of Heterozygous rBAT Mutants Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes

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          Abstract

          The rBAT gene encodes a transport protein for cystine and dibasic amino acids. It is a candidate gene for type I cystinuria, a genetic disorder inherited as an autosomal-recessive trait. Recently, several mutations in rBAT from Japanese patients with cystinuria have been reported from our laboratory. Some of these patients were heterozygous, which appears to be inconsistent with the previous concept that mutations in rBAT are recessive. To investigate the function of heterozygous mutants, we introduced these mutations into rBAT gene and analyzed the transport activity of cystine associated with the mutants in Xenopus oocytes. Co-injection of the mutant T1037C (L346P) and the polymorphism G1854A (M6181) into Xenopus oocytes produced a transport activity of 67.9% of the wild type. Oocytes co-injected with T2017C (C673R) and wild type had a transport activity of 70.3% of the wild type. These findings indicate that the heterozygous mutants show decreased transport activity compared to wild-type rBAT. Further, some mutants in rBAT may show decreased cystine transport activity even in heterozygous condition, which may contribute to stone-forming cystinuria.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Non-type I cystinuria caused by mutations in SLC7A9, encoding a subunit (bo,+AT) of rBAT.

          Cystinuria (MIM 220100) is a common recessive disorder of renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids. Mutations in SLC3A1, encoding rBAT, cause cystinuria type I (ref. 1), but not other types of cystinuria (ref. 2). A gene whose mutation causes non-type I cystinuria has been mapped by linkage analysis to 19q12-13.1 (Refs 3,4). We have identified a new transcript, encoding a protein (bo, +AT, for bo,+ amino acid transporter) belonging to a family of light subunits of amino acid transporters, expressed in kidney, liver, small intestine and placenta, and localized its gene (SLC7A9) to the non-type I cystinuria 19q locus. Co-transfection of bo,+AT and rBAT brings the latter to the plasma membrane, and results in the uptake of L-arginine in COS cells. We have found SLC7A9 mutations in Libyan-Jews, North American, Italian and Spanish non-type I cystinuria patients. The Libyan Jewish patients are homozygous for a founder missense mutation (V170M) that abolishes b o,+AT amino-acid uptake activity when co-transfected with rBAT in COS cells. We identified four missense mutations (G105R, A182T, G195R and G295R) and two frameshift (520insT and 596delTG) mutations in other patients. Our data establish that mutations in SLC7A9 cause non-type I cystinuria, and suggest that bo,+AT is the light subunit of rBAT.
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            Identification of an amino acid transporter associated with the cystinuria-related type II membrane glycoprotein.

             H Haga,  H Ito,  K Miyamoto (1999)
            We identified an amino acid transporter that is associated with the cystinuria-related type II membrane glycoprotein, rBAT (related to b(0,+) amino acid transporter). The transporter designated BAT1 (b(0, +)-type amino acid transporter 1) from rat kidney was found to be structurally related to recently identified amino acid transporters for system L, system y(+)L, and system x(-)C, which are linked, via a disulfide bond, to the other type II membrane glycoprotein, 4F2hc (4F2 heavy chain). In the nonreducing condition, a 125-kDa band, which seems to correspond to the heterodimeric complex of BAT1 and rBAT, was detected in rat kidney with anti-BAT1 antibody. The band was shifted to 41 kDa in the reducing condition, confirming that BAT1 and rBAT are linked via a disulfide bond. The BAT1 and rBAT proteins were shown to be colocalized in the apical membrane of the renal proximal tubules where massive cystine transport had been proposed. When expressed in COS-7 cells with rBAT, but not with 4F2hc, BAT1 exhibited a Na(+)-independent transport of cystine as well as basic and neutral amino acids with the properties of system b(0,+). The results from the present investigation were used to establish a family of amino acid transporters associated with type II membrane glycoproteins.
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              An intracellular trafficking defect in type I cystinuria rBAT mutants M467T and M467K.

              The human rBAT protein elicits sodium-independent, high affinity obligatory exchange of cystine, dibasic amino acids, and some neutral amino acids in Xenopus oocytes (Chillarón, J., Estévez, R., Mora, C., Wagner, C. A., Suessbrich, H., Lang, F., Gelpí, J. L., Testar, X., Busch, A. E., Zorzano, A., and Palacín, M. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 17761-17770). Mutations in rBAT have been found to cause cystinuria (Calonge, M. J., Gasparini, P., Chillarón, J., Chillón, M., Galluci, M., Rousaud, F., Zelante, L., Testar, X., Dallapiccola, B., Di Silverio, F., Barceló, P., Estivill, X., Zorzano, A., Nunes, V., and Palacín, M. (1994) Nat. Genet. 6, 420-426). We have performed functional studies with the most common point mutation, M467T, and its relative, M467K, using the oocyte system. The Km and the voltage dependence for transport of the different substrates were the same in both M467T and wild type-injected oocytes. However, the time course of transport was delayed in the M467T mutant: maximal activity was accomplished 3-4 days later than in the wild type. This delay was cRNA dose-dependent: at cRNA levels below 0.5 ng the M467T failed to achieve the wild type transport level. The M467K mutant displayed a normal Km, but the Vmax was between 5 and 35% of the wild type. The amount of rBAT protein was similar in normal and mutant-injected oocytes. In contrast to the wild type, the mutant proteins remained endoglycosidase H-sensitive, suggesting a longer residence time in the endoplasmic reticulum. We quantified the amount of rBAT protein in the plasma membrane by surface labeling with biotin 2 and 6 days after injection. Most of the M467T and M467K protein was located in an intracellular compartment. The converse situation was found in the wild type. Despite the low amount of M467T protein reaching the plasma membrane, the transport activity at 6 days was the same as in the wild type-injected oocytes. The increase in plasma membrane rBAT protein between 2 and 6 days was completely dissociated from the rise in transport activity. These data indicate impaired maturation and transport to the plasma membrane of the M467T and M467K mutant, and suggest that rBAT alone is unable to support the transport function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2002
                June 2002
                03 June 2002
                : 91
                : 2
                : 276-280
                Affiliations
                Departments of aUrology, and bPharmacology, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan
                Article
                58404 Nephron 2002;91:276–280
                10.1159/000058404
                12053065
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 17, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/58404
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                rBAT, SLC3A1, Cystinuria, Amino acid transporter, Urolithiasis

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