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      COVID-19 nas instituições de longa permanência para idosos: estratégias de rastreamento laboratorial e prevenção da propagação da doença Translated title: COVID-19 in long-term care facilities for the elderly: laboratory screening and disease dissemination prevention strategies

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          Abstract

          Resumo A pandemia da “novel coronavirus disease” 2019 (COVID-19), infecção causada pelo coronavírus 2 da síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS-CoV-2), tem descortinado uma realidade até então oculta: a vulnerabilidade da população residente em instituições de longa permanência para idosos (ILPI). Diversas publicações científicas têm revelado a concentração de até 60% dos óbitos atribuídos à COVID-19 em tais instituições. A maioria dos residentes em ILPI reúnem os principais fatores de risco para morbimortalidade pela COVID-19, o que torna imprescindível a definição de ações voltadas à prevenção da transmissibilidade do SARS-CoV-2 neste ambiente, além das medidas usuais de distanciamento social e isolamento dos portadores da doença. Propõem-se, no presente artigo, estratégias de rastreamento da infecção em residentes e trabalhadores de ILPI por meio de testes laboratoriais disponíveis no Brasil. A identificação precoce de indivíduos portadores do SARS-CoV-2 com possibilidades de transmissão ativa e continuada do vírus permite a adoção de medidas que interrompam o ciclo de transmissão local da infecção.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract An infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has unveiled a hitherto hidden reality: the vulnerability of the population living in long-term care facilities for the elderly (LTCF). To date, several scientific publications have revealed a concentration of up to 60% of deaths attributed to COVID-19 in such institutions. Most LTFC residents share the primary risk factors currently associated with increased morbimortality due to the COVID-19 infection. It is crucial to define actions to prevent SARS-CoV-2 spread in this environment, besides the usual measures of social distancing and isolation of the carriers of this disease. This paper proposes strategies for the investigation of this infection in LTCF residents and workers using laboratory tests available in Brazil. The early identification of individuals with SARS-CoV-2, who may actively and continuously spread the virus, allows adopting measures aimed at interrupting the local transmission cycle of this infection.

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          Most cited references 6

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          COVID-19: a meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy of commercial assays registered in Brazil

          The accuracy of commercially available tests for COVID-19 in Brazil remains unclear. We aimed to perform a meta-analysis to describe the accuracy of available tests to detect COVID-19 in Brazil. We searched at the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA) online platform to describe the pooled sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and summary receiver operating characteristic curves (SROC) for detection of IgM/IgG antibodies and for tests using naso/oropharyngeal swabs in the random-effects models. We identified 16 tests registered, mostly rapid-tests. Pooled diagnostic accuracy measures [95%CI] were: (i) for IgM antibodies Se = 82% [76-87]; Sp = 97% [96-98]; DOR = 168 [92-305] and SROC = 0.98 [0.96-0.99]; (ii) for IgG antibodies Se = 97% [90-99]; Sp = 98% [97-99]; DOR = 1994 [385-10334] and SROC = 0.99 [0.98-1.00]; and (iii) for detection of SARS-CoV-2 by antigen or molecular assays in naso/oropharyngeal swabs Se = 97% [85-99]; Sp = 99% [77-100]; DOR = 2649 [30-233056] and SROC = 0.99 [0.98-1.00]. These tests can be helpful for emergency testing during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. However, it is important to highlight the high rate of false negative results from tests which detect SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies in the initial course of the disease and the scarce evidence-based validation results published in Brazil. Future studies addressing the diagnostic performance of tests for COVID-19 in the Brazilian population are urgently needed.
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            Recommendations for protecting against and mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic in long-term care facilities

            The COVID-19 outbreak has drawn heightened attention from public health scholars researching ways to limit its spread. Much of the research has been focused on minimizing transmission in hospitals and in the general community. However, a particularly vulnerable community that has received relatively little attention is elders residing in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). In this article we address this relative lack of attention, arguing that enhanced traffic control bundling (eTCB) can and should be adopted and implemented as a means of protecting LTCF residents and staff. Enhanced TCB has been widely applied in hospital settings and has proven effective at limiting droplet and fomite transmissions both within hospitals and between hospitals and the general community. By effectively adapting eTCB to LTCF conditions, particularly by incorporating compartmentalization within zones plus active surveillance, COVID-19 transmission into and throughout LTCFs can be minimized, thereby saving numerous lives among an especially vulnerable population.
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              A importância da gestão correta da condição crônica na Atenção Primária à Saúde para o enfrentamento da COVID-19 em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                csc
                Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
                Ciênc. saúde coletiva
                ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                1413-8123
                1678-4561
                September 2020
                : 25
                : 8
                : 3445-3458
                Affiliations
                Belo Horizonte MG orgnameUFMG orgdiv1Faculdade de Medicina orgdiv2Departamento de Propedêutica Complementar Brazil
                São Paulo SP orgnameInstituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos Filantrópica Casa Ondina Lobo Brazil
                Brasília DF orgnameConselho Nacional de Secretários de Saúde Brazil
                Belo Horizonte MG orgnameSanta Casa de Belo Horizonte Brazil
                Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais orgnameSecretaria Municipal de Saúde de Belo Horizonte Brazil
                Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais orgdiv1Faculdade de Medicina orgdiv2Departamento de Clínica Médica Brazil edgarnmoraes@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S1413-81232020000903445 S1413-8123(20)02500903445
                10.1590/1413-81232020259.20382020

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 31, Pages: 14
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