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          There is potential to significantly reduce CO 2 emissions by increasing the efficiency and reducing the duty cycle of HVAC systems by using smart booster fans and dampers. Smart booster fans fit in the vents within a home, operating quietly on low power (2W) to augment HVAC systems and improve their performance. In this study, a prototype duct system is used to measure and evaluate the ability for smart booster fans and dampers to control airflow to different vents for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of HVAC systems. Four case studies were evaluated: an HVAC system (1) without any fans or dampers, (2) with a fan installed in one vent, but without any dampers, (3) with dampers installed at the vents, but without any fans, and (4) with both fan and dampers installed. The results from both the experimental and numerical evaluation show that the smart booster fan and dampers can significantly improve the airflow at a vent that is underperforming. For example, the airflow at the last vent in a ducting branch was increased from 17 to 37 CFM when a smart booster fan was installed at this vent. Results from the numerical analysis show that for the case of an underperforming vent during the winter season the HVAC running time may be reduced from 24 hr/day to 5.6 hr/day. Furthermore, results from the numerical analysis show the HVAC running time is further reduced to 4.5 hr/day for cases 3 and 4.

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            Summary of human responses to ventilation.

            It is known that ventilation is necessary to remove indoor-generated pollutants from indoor air or dilute their concentration to acceptable levels. But as the limit values of all pollutants are not known the exact determination of required ventilation rates based on pollutant concentrations is seldom possible. The selection of ventilation rates has to be based also on epidemiological research, laboratory and field experiments and experience. The existing literature indicates that ventilation has a significant impact on several important human outcomes including: (1) communicable respiratory illnesses; (2) sick building syndrome symptoms; (3) task performance and productivity, and (4) perceived air quality (PAQ) among occupants or sensory panels (5) respiratory allergies and asthma. In many studies, prevalence of sick building syndrome symptoms has also been associated with characteristics of HVAC-systems. Often the prevalence of SBS symptoms is higher in air-conditioned buildings than in naturally ventilated buildings. The evidence suggests that better hygiene, commissioning, operation and maintenance of air handling systems may be particularly important for reducing the negative effects of HVAC systems. Ventilation may also have harmful effects on indoor air quality and climate if not properly designed, installed, maintained and operated. Ventilation may bring indoors harmful substances or deteriorate indoor environment. Ventilation interacts also with the building envelope and may deteriorate the structures of the building. Ventilation changes the pressure differences across the structures of building and may cause or prevent infiltration of pollutants from structures or adjacent spaces. Ventilation is also in many cases used to control the thermal environment or humidity in buildings. The paper summarises the current knowledge on positive and negative effects of ventilation on health and other human responses. The focus is on office-type working environment and residential buildings. The review shows that ventilation has various positive impacts on health and productivity of building occupants. Ventilation reduces the prevalence of airborne infectious diseases and thus the number of sick leave days. In office environment a ventilation rate up to 20-25 L/s per person seem to decrease the prevalence of SBS-symptoms. Air conditioning systems may increase the prevalence of SBS-symptoms relative to natural ventilation if not clean. In residential buildings the air change rate in cold climates should not be below app. 0.5 ach. Ventilation systems may cause pressure differences over the building envelope and bring harmful pollutants indoors.
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              Sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation: a review


                Author and article information

                Journal of Green Building
                College Publishing
                Spring 2021
                10 June 2021
                : 16
                : 2
                : 115-127
                Author notes

                1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lassonde School of Engineering, York University 4700 Keele St., Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3, Canada

                *Prof. O’Brien, corresponding author, paul.obrien@ 123456lassonde.yorku.ca
                Page count
                Pages: 13
                Self URI (journal page): http://www.journalofgreenbuilding.com
                RESEARCH ARTICLES

                Urban design & Planning,Civil engineering,Environmental management, Policy & Planning,Architecture,Environmental engineering
                 computational fluid dynamics (CFD),smart booster fans,smart dampers,airflow at HVAC vents,HVAC efficiency,HVAC duty cycles


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