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      A Novel Molecular Classification Method for Glioblastoma Based on Tumor Cell Differentiation Trajectories


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          The latest 2021 WHO classification redefines glioblastoma (GBM) as the hierarchical reporting standard by eliminating glioblastoma, IDH-mutant and only retaining the tumor entity of “glioblastoma, IDH-wild type.” Knowing that subclassification of tumors based on molecular features is supposed to facilitate the therapeutic choice and increase the response rate in cancer patients, it is necessary to carry out molecular classification of the newly defined GBM. Although differentiation trajectory inference based on single-cell sequencing (scRNA-seq) data holds great promise for identifying cell heterogeneity, it has not been used in the study of GBM molecular classification. Single-cell transcriptome sequencing data from 10 GBM samples were used to identify molecular classification based on differentiation trajectories. The expressions of identified features were validated by public bulk RNA-sequencing data. Clinical feasibility of the classification system was examined in tissue samples by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and immunofluorescence, and their clinical significance was investigated in public cohorts and clinical samples with complete clinical follow-up information. By analyzing scRNA-seq data of 10 GBM samples, four differentiation trajectories from the glioblastoma stem cell-like (GSCL) cluster were identified, based on which malignant cells were classified into five characteristic subclusters. Each cluster exhibited different potential drug sensitivities, pathways, functions, and transcriptional modules. The classification model was further examined in TCGA and CGGA datasets. According to the different abundance of five characteristic cell clusters, the patients were classified into five groups which we named Ac-G, Class-G, Neo-G, Opc-G, and Undiff-G groups. It was found that the Undiff-G group exhibited the worst overall survival (OS) in both TCGA and CGGA cohorts. In addition, the classification model was verified by IHC staining in 137 GBM samples to further clarify the difference in OS between the five groups. Furthermore, the novel biomarkers of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) were also described. In summary, we identified five classifications of GBM and found that they exhibited distinct drug sensitivities and different prognoses, suggesting that the new grouping system may be able to provide important prognostic information and have certain guiding significance for the treatment of GBM, and identified the GSCL cluster in GBM tissues and described its characteristic program, which may help develop new potential therapeutic targets for GSCs in GBM.

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          The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System: a summary.

          The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System is both a conceptual and practical advance over its 2007 predecessor. For the first time, the WHO classification of CNS tumors uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to define many tumor entities, thus formulating a concept for how CNS tumor diagnoses should be structured in the molecular era. As such, the 2016 CNS WHO presents major restructuring of the diffuse gliomas, medulloblastomas and other embryonal tumors, and incorporates new entities that are defined by both histology and molecular features, including glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype and glioblastoma, IDH-mutant; diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant; RELA fusion-positive ependymoma; medulloblastoma, WNT-activated and medulloblastoma, SHH-activated; and embryonal tumour with multilayered rosettes, C19MC-altered. The 2016 edition has added newly recognized neoplasms, and has deleted some entities, variants and patterns that no longer have diagnostic and/or biological relevance. Other notable changes include the addition of brain invasion as a criterion for atypical meningioma and the introduction of a soft tissue-type grading system for the now combined entity of solitary fibrous tumor / hemangiopericytoma-a departure from the manner by which other CNS tumors are graded. Overall, it is hoped that the 2016 CNS WHO will facilitate clinical, experimental and epidemiological studies that will lead to improvements in the lives of patients with brain tumors.
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            Radiotherapy plus Concomitant and Adjuvant Temozolomide for Glioblastoma

            Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is usually rapidly fatal. The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma is surgical resection to the extent feasible, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. In this trial we compared radiotherapy alone with radiotherapy plus temozolomide, given concomitantly with and after radiotherapy, in terms of efficacy and safety. Patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed glioblastoma were randomly assigned to receive radiotherapy alone (fractionated focal irradiation in daily fractions of 2 Gy given 5 days per week for 6 weeks, for a total of 60 Gy) or radiotherapy plus continuous daily temozolomide (75 mg per square meter of body-surface area per day, 7 days per week from the first to the last day of radiotherapy), followed by six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide (150 to 200 mg per square meter for 5 days during each 28-day cycle). The primary end point was overall survival. A total of 573 patients from 85 centers underwent randomization. The median age was 56 years, and 84 percent of patients had undergone debulking surgery. At a median follow-up of 28 months, the median survival was 14.6 months with radiotherapy plus temozolomide and 12.1 months with radiotherapy alone. The unadjusted hazard ratio for death in the radiotherapy-plus-temozolomide group was 0.63 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.75; P<0.001 by the log-rank test). The two-year survival rate was 26.5 percent with radiotherapy plus temozolomide and 10.4 percent with radiotherapy alone. Concomitant treatment with radiotherapy plus temozolomide resulted in grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxic effects in 7 percent of patients. The addition of temozolomide to radiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma resulted in a clinically meaningful and statistically significant survival benefit with minimal additional toxicity. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              The 2021 WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System: a summary

              The fifth edition of the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS), published in 2021, is the sixth version of the international standard for the classification of brain and spinal cord tumors. Building on the 2016 updated fourth edition and the work of the Consortium to Inform Molecular and Practical Approaches to CNS Tumor Taxonomy, the 2021 fifth edition introduces major changes that advance the role of molecular diagnostics in CNS tumor classification. At the same time, it remains wedded to other established approaches to tumor diagnosis such as histology and immunohistochemistry. In doing so, the fifth edition establishes some different approaches to both CNS tumor nomenclature and grading and it emphasizes the importance of integrated diagnoses and layered reports. New tumor types and subtypes are introduced, some based on novel diagnostic technologies such as DNA methylome profiling. The present review summarizes the major general changes in the 2021 fifth edition classification and the specific changes in each taxonomic category. It is hoped that this summary provides an overview to facilitate more in-depth exploration of the entire fifth edition of the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System.

                Author and article information

                Stem Cells Int
                Stem Cells Int
                Stem Cells International
                22 February 2023
                : 2023
                : 2826815
                1Neurovascular Center, Changhai Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China
                2Neurosurgery Department, 922th Hospital of Joint Logistics Support Force, PLA, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Fanglin Guan

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Guanghao Zhang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 30 August 2022
                : 29 September 2022
                : 13 October 2022
                Funded by: Shanghai Shenkang Three-Year Action Plan Major Clinical Research Project
                Award ID: SHDC2020CR4037
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81701775
                Research Article

                Molecular medicine
                Molecular medicine


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