Tick-borne diseases are common occurrences in both the medical and veterinary clinical settings. In addition to the constraints related to their diagnosis and clinical management, the control and prevention of these diseases is often difficult, because it requires the disruption of a complex transmission chain, involving vertebrate hosts and ticks, which interact in a constantly changing environment. We provide a contemporary review of representative tick-borne diseases of humans and discuss aspects linked to their medical relevance worldwide. Finally, we emphasize the importance of a One Health approach to tick-borne diseases, calling physicians and veterinarians to unify their efforts in the management of these diseases, several of which are zoonoses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.