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      Rickettsia raoultii in Haemaphysalis erinacei from marbled polecats, China–Kazakhstan border

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          Abstract

          We found Rickettsia raoultii DNA in 2 out of 32 (6.25 %) Haemaphysalis erinacei ticks. Result showed that the sequences of five genes ( 17- kDa, gltA, ompA, rrs, and ompB) were 100 % identity with that of R. Raoultii in GenBank. This study is the first report on the presence of R. raoultii in H. erinacei from wild marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna. Our findings suggest that H. erinacei parasitizing wild marbled polecat may serve as reservoir and carriers for R. raoultii in areas around the China-Kazakhstan border. The transmission of tick-borne diseases originated from wildlife should not be underestimated in border region.

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          First report on the occurrence of Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in Dermacentor silvarum in China

          Background Rickettsioses are among both the longest known and most recently recognized infectious diseases. Although new spotted fever group rickettsiae have been isolated in many parts of the world including China, Little is known about the epidemiology of Rickettsia pathogens in ticks from Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. Methods In an attempt to assess the potential risk of rickettsial infection after exposure to ticks in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, a total of 200 Dermacentor silvarum ticks collected in Xinyuan district were screened by polymerase chain reaction based on the outer membrane protein A gene. Results 22 of the 200 specimens (11%) were found to be positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of OmpA sequences identified two rickettsial species, Rickettsia raoultii (4.5%) and Rickettsia slovaca (6.5%). Conclusions This study has reported the occurrence of Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia slovaca in Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China and suggests that Dermacentor silvarum could be involved in the transmission of rickettsial agents in China. Further studies on the characterization and culture of rickettsial species found in Dermacentor silvarum should be performed to further clarify this. Additionally, the screening of human specimens for rickettsial disease in this region will define the incidence of infection.
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            First report of Rickettsia felis in China

            Background Rickettsia felis is a recently described flea-borne spotted fever group Rickettsia that is an emerging human pathogen. Although there is information on the organism from around the world, there is no information on the organism in China. Methods We used a commercial ELISA to detect antibodies reactive against R. felis in blood samples and developed a PCR to detect the gltA of the organism in blood samples and external parasites. Results We found reactive antibodies in people (16%; 28/180), dogs (47%; 128/271) and cats (21%; 19/90) and positive PCRs with DNA from people (0.1%; 1/822), dogs (0.8%; 8/1,059), mice (10%; 1/10), ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus; 10%; 15/146), lice (Linognathus setosus; 16%; 6/37), fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis; 95%; 57/60) and mosquitoes (Anopheles sinensis, Culex pipiens pallens; 6%; 25/428), but not from cats (0/135) or canine fecal swabs (0/43). Conclusions This is the first report of R. felis in China where there is serological and/ or PCR evidence of the organism in previously reported [people, dogs, cats, ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis) and mosquitoes (Anopheles sinensis, Culex pipiens pallens)] and novel species [mice and lice (Linognathus setosus)].
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              A novel Rickettsia species detected in Vole Ticks (Ixodes angustus) from Western Canada.

              The genomic DNA of ixodid ticks from western Canada was tested by PCR for the presence of Rickettsia. No rickettsiae were detected in Ixodes sculptus, whereas 18% of the I. angustus and 42% of the Dermacentor andersoni organisms examined were PCR positive for Rickettsia. The rickettsiae from each tick species were characterized genetically using multiple genes. Rickettsiae within the D. andersoni organisms had sequences at four genes that matched those of R. peacockii. In contrast, the Rickettsia present within the larvae, nymphs, and adults of I. angustus had novel DNA sequences at four of the genes characterized compared to the sequences available from GenBank for all recognized species of Rickettsia and all other putative species within the genus. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data revealed that the rickettsiae in I. angustus do not belong to the spotted fever, transitional, or typhus groups of rickettsiae but are most closely related to "Candidatus Rickettsia kingi" and belong to a clade that also includes R. canadensis, "Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae," and "Candidatus Rickettsia monteiroi."
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                liping-guo@qq.com
                734234401@qq.com
                alskxj@126.com
                799149270@qq.com
                417534504@qq.com
                ccf-xb@163.com
                54178451@qq.com
                zwj1117@sina.com
                wangyuanzhi621@126.com
                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                1756-3305
                17 September 2015
                17 September 2015
                2015
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [ ]School of Medicine, Shihezi University, Shihezi, 832000 China
                [ ]Xinjiang Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Urumqi, 830063 China
                [ ]College of Animal Science and Technology, Shihezi University, Shihezi, 832000 China
                Article
                1065
                10.1186/s13071-015-1065-1
                4573940
                © Guo et al. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                © The Author(s) 2015

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