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      Policing and Mental Illness in England and Wales post Bradley

      Policing

      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          The association between suicide and the socio-economic characteristics of geographical areas: a systematic review.

           S Buka,  David Rehkopf (2006)
          Despite an extensive literature, there have been widely divergent findings regarding the direction of the association between area socio-economic characteristics and area suicide rates, with high-quality studies finding either a direct relation (higher rates of suicide in higher socio-economic areas), an inverse relation (lower rates of suicide in higher socio-economic areas) or no association. We performed a systematic review of the literature dating from 1897 to 2004 and identified 86 publications with 221 separate analyses that met our inclusion criteria. We examined the percent of direct, inverse and null findings stratified by key study characteristics including size of aggregated area, socio-economic measure used, region of study, control variables and study design. Analyses at the community level are significantly more likely to demonstrate lower rates of suicide among higher socio-economic areas than studies using larger areas of aggregation. Measures of area poverty and deprivation are most likely to be inversely associated with suicide rates and median income is least likely to be inversely associated with suicide rates. Analyses using measures of unemployment and education and occupation were equally likely to demonstrate inverse associations. Study results did not vary significantly by gender or by study design. The heterogeneity of associations is mostly accounted for by study design features that have largely been neglected in this literature. Enhanced attention to size of region and measurement strategies provide a clearer picture of how suicide rates vary by region. Resources for suicide prevention should be targeted to high poverty/deprivation and high unemployment areas.
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            Crime victimization in adults with severe mental illness: comparison with the National Crime Victimization Survey.

            Since deinstitutionalization, most persons with severe mental illness (SMI) now live in the community, where they are at great risk for crime victimization. To determine the prevalence and incidence of crime victimization among persons with SMI by sex, race/ethnicity, and age, and to compare rates with general population data (the National Crime Victimization Survey), controlling for income and demographic differences between the samples. Epidemiologic study of persons in treatment. Independent master's-level clinical research interviewers administered the National Crime Victimization Survey to randomly selected patients sampled from 16 randomly selected mental health agencies. Sixteen agencies providing outpatient, day, and residential treatment to persons with SMI in Chicago, Ill. Randomly selected, stratified sample of 936 patients aged 18 or older (483 men, 453 women) who were African American (n = 329), non-Hispanic white (n = 321), Hispanic (n = 270), or other race/ethnicity (n = 22). The comparison group comprised 32 449 participants in the National Crime Victimization Survey. National Crime Victimization Survey, developed by the Bureau of Justice Statistics. More than one quarter of persons with SMI had been victims of a violent crime in the past year, a rate more than 11 times higher than the general population rates even after controlling for demographic differences between the 2 samples (P<.001). The annual incidence of violent crime in the SMI sample (168.2 incidents per 1000 persons) is more than 4 times higher than the general population rates (39.9 incidents per 1000 persons) (P<.001). Depending on the type of violent crime (rape/sexual assault, robbery, assault, and their subcategories), prevalence was 6 to 23 times greater among persons with SMI than among the general population. Crime victimization is a major public health problem among persons with SMI who are treated in the community. We recommend directions for future research, propose modifications in public policy, and suggest how the mental health system can respond to reduce victimization and its consequences.
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              Prevalence and risk of violence against adults with disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

              About 15% of adults worldwide have a disability. These individuals are frequently reported to be at increased risk of violence, yet quantitative syntheses of studies of this issue are scarce. We aimed to quantify violence against adults with disabilities.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Policing
                Policing
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1752-4512
                1752-4520
                November 05 2012
                December 01 2012
                June 27 2012
                December 01 2012
                : 6
                : 4
                : 365-376
                10.1093/police/pas024
                © 2012

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