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      Urinary Biomarkers of Aminoglycoside-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Cystic Fibrosis: Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin

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          Abstract

          Aminoglycosides are commonly used for the treatment of pulmonary exacerbations in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, they are potentially nephrotoxic. This prospective observational cohort study aimed to investigate the potential validity of two urinary renal biomarkers, Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) and Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL), in identifying aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity in children with CF. Children and young adults up to 20 years of age with a confirmed diagnosis of CF were recruited from ten United Kingdom hospitals. Participants provided urine samples for measurement of KIM-1 and NGAL concentrations, at baseline, at regular outpatient appointments, and before, during and after exposure to clinically-indicated treatment with the aminoglycoside tobramycin. 37/158 patients recruited (23.4%) received at least one course of IV tobramycin during the study. The median peak fold-change during tobramycin exposure for KIM-1 was 2.28 (IQR 2.69) and 4.02 (IQR 7.29) for NGAL, in the absence of serum creatinine changes. Baseline KIM-1 was positively associated with cumulative courses of IV aminoglycosides (R 2 = 0.11; β = 0.03; p < 0.0001). KIM-1, in particular, may be a useful, non-invasive, biomarker of acute and chronic proximal tubular injury associated with exposure to aminoglycosides in patients with CF, but its clinical utility needs to be further evaluated in prospective studies.

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          Most cited references 44

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          A simple estimate of glomerular filtration rate in children derived from body length and plasma creatinine.

          Based on statistical analysis of data in 186 children, a formula was derived which allows accurate estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from plasma creatinine and body lenght (GFR(ml/min/1.73 sq m) = 0.55 length (cm)/Per (mg/dl). Its application to clearance data in a separate group of 223 children reveals excellent agreement with GFR estimated by the Ccr (r = .935) or Cin (r = .905). This formula should be useful for adjusting dosages of drugs excreted by the kidney and detecting significant changes in renal function.
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            Kidney injury molecule-1 is a phosphatidylserine receptor that confers a phagocytic phenotype on epithelial cells.

            Following injury, the clearance of apoptotic and necrotic cells is necessary for mitigation and resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. In addition to macrophages, which are traditionally assigned to this task, neighboring epithelial cells in the affected tissue are postulated to contribute to this process. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1 or TIM-1) is an immunoglobulin superfamily cell-surface protein not expressed by cells of the myeloid lineage but highly upregulated on the surface of injured kidney epithelial cells. Here we demonstrate that injured kidney epithelial cells assumed attributes of endogenous phagocytes. Confocal images confirm internalization of apoptotic bodies within KIM-1-expressing epithelial cells after injury in rat kidney tubules in vivo. KIM-1 was directly responsible for phagocytosis in cultured primary rat tubule epithelial cells and also porcine and canine epithelial cell lines. KIM-1 was able to specifically recognize apoptotic cell surface-specific epitopes phosphatidylserine, and oxidized lipoproteins, expressed by apoptotic tubular epithelial cells. Thus, KIM-1 is the first nonmyeloid phosphatidylserine receptor identified to our knowledge that transforms epithelial cells into semiprofessional phagocytes.
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              Creatinine kinetics and the definition of acute kidney injury.

              Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and devastating medical condition, but no widely accepted definition exists. A recent classification system by the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (RIFLE) defines AKI largely by percentage increases in serum creatinine (SCr) over baseline. The Acute Kidney Injury Network defines the first stage by either an absolute or a percentage increase in SCr. To examine the implications of various definitions, we solved differential equations on the basis of mass balance principles. We simulated creatinine kinetics after AKI in the setting of normal baseline kidney function and stages 2, 3, and 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD). The percentage changes in SCr after severe AKI are highly dependent on baseline kidney function. Twenty-four hours after a 90% reduction in creatinine clearance, the rise in SCr was 246% with normal baseline kidney function, 174% in stage 2 CKD, 92% in stage 3 CKD, and only 47% in stage 4 CKD. By contrast, the absolute increase was nearly identical (1.8 to 2.0 mg/dl) across the spectrum of baseline kidney function. Time to reach a 50% increase in SCr was directly related to baseline kidney function: From 4 h (normal baseline) up to 27 h for stage 4 CKD. By contrast, the time to reach a 0.5-mg/dl increase in SCr was virtually identical after moderate to severe AKI (>50% reduction in creatinine clearance). We propose an alternative definition of AKI that incorporates absolute changes in SCr over a 24- to 48-h time period.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                stevemcw@liv.ac.uk
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                23 March 2018
                23 March 2018
                2018
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8470, GRID grid.10025.36, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, , University of Liverpool, ; Merseyside, United Kingdom
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7988, GRID grid.4305.2, MRC Centre for Inflammation Research, University of Edinburgh, ; Edinburgh, United Kingdom
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8470, GRID grid.10025.36, Department of Biostatistics, , University of Liverpool, Liverpool, ; Merseyside, United Kingdom
                [4 ]ISNI 0000000121901201, GRID grid.83440.3b, University College London, Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, ; London, United Kingdom
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8470, GRID grid.10025.36, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, , and MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, ; Merseyside, United Kingdom
                Article
                23466
                10.1038/s41598-018-23466-4
                5865203
                29572451
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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