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      Novel Deep Learning Technique Used in Management and Discharge of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in China

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          The low sensitivity and false-negative results of nucleic acid testing greatly affect its performance in diagnosing and discharging patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Chest computed tomography (CT)-based evaluation of pneumonia may indicate a need for isolation. Therefore, this radiologic modality plays an important role in managing patients with suspected COVID-19. Meanwhile, deep learning (DL) technology has been successful in detecting various imaging features of chest CT. This study applied a novel DL technique to standardize the discharge criteria of COVID-19 patients with consecutive negative respiratory pathogen nucleic acid test results at a “square cabin” hospital.

          Patients and Methods

          DL was used to evaluate the chest CT scans of 270 hospitalized COVID-19 patients who had two consecutive negative nucleic acid tests (sampling interval >1 day). The CT scans evaluated were obtained after the patients’ second negative test result. The standard criterion determined by DL for patient discharge was a total volume ratio of lesion to lung <50%.

          Results

          The mean number of days between hospitalization and DL was 14.3 (± 2.4). The average intersection over union was 0.7894. Two hundred and thirteen (78.9%) patients exhibited pneumonia, of whom 54.0% (115/213) had mild interstitial fibrosis. Twenty-one, 33, and 4 cases exhibited vascular enlargement, pleural thickening, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, respectively. Of the latter, 18.8% (40/213) had a total volume ratio of lesions to lung ≥50% according to our severity scale and were monitored continuously in the hospital. Three cases had a positive follow-up nucleic acid test during hospitalization. None of the 230 discharged cases later tested positive or exhibited pneumonia progression.

          Conclusion

          The novel DL enables the accurate management of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and can help avoid cluster transmission or exacerbation in patients with false-negative acid test.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

            Summary In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.)
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              Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China

              In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                tcrm
                tcriskman
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                08 December 2020
                2020
                : 16
                : 1195-1201
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University , Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Yizhun Medical AI Co. Ltd , Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Radiology, The Wuhan Union Hospital , Wuhan, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Qingcheng MengDepartment of Radiology, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University , No. 127 Dongming Road, Jinshui District, Zhengzhou450008, People’s Republic of ChinaTel/Fax +86-0371-65587152 Email zlyymengqingcheng1865@zzu.edu.cn
                Ziqiao LeiDepartment of Radiology, The Wuhan Union Hospital , No. 1277 Jiefang Road, Jianghan District, Wuhan430000, People’s Republic of China Email ziqiao_lei@hust.edu.cn
                Article
                280726
                10.2147/TCRM.S280726
                7733409
                © 2020 Meng et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 18, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                x-ray, computed tomography, sars-cov-2, infectious disease, lung disease

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