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      Bioequivalence of paclitaxel protein-bound particles in patients with breast cancer: determining total and unbound paclitaxel in plasma by rapid equilibrium dialysis and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

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          Abstract

          Background and objective: Paclitaxel protein-bound particles for injectable suspension (nab-paclitaxel) showed many advantages in safety, effectiveness, and convenience. Different from conventional formulations, the bioequivalence evaluation of nab-paclitaxel formulations requires to determine the total amount of paclitaxel in plasma and the unbound paclitaxel to reflect their in vivo disposition. This study aimed to develop an analytical method to quantify the total and unbound paclitaxel in plasma and evaluate the bioequivalence of two formulations of nab-paclitaxel in patients with breast cancer.

          Materials and methods: An open-label, randomized, two-period crossover study was completed among 24 Chinese patients with breast cancer. The patients were randomized to receive either the test formulation on cycle 1 day 1 and after 21 days in cycle 2 day 1 by the reference formulation (Abraxane®), or vice versa. Rapid equilibrium dialysis was adopted to separate the unbound paclitaxel in human plasma. Total and unbound paclitaxel concentrations were measured by the validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry methods over the range of 5.00–15,000 and 0.200–200 ng/mL, respectively. The bioequivalence of the test formulation to the reference formulation was assessed using the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines.

          Results: All the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios fell within the predetermined acceptance range. The 90% CIs for the area under the concentration–time curve (AUC) from 0 h to 72 h (AUC 0–t), AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC 0–∞), and peak plasma concentrations (C max) for total paclitaxel were 92.03%–98.05%, 91.98%–99.37%, and 91.37%–99.36%, respectively. The 90% CIs of AUC 0–t, AUC 0–∞, and C max for unbound paclitaxel were 86.77%–97.88%, 86.81%–97.88%, and 87.70%–98.86%, respectively.

          Conclusion: Bioequivalence between the two nab-paclitaxel formulations was confirmed for total and unbound paclitaxel at the studied dose regimen.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Phase III trial of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel compared with polyethylated castor oil-based paclitaxel in women with breast cancer.

          ABI-007, the first biologically interactive albumin-bound paclitaxel in a nanameter particle, free of solvents, was compared with polyethylated castor oil-based standard paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). This phase III study was performed to confirm preclinical studies demonstrating superior efficacy and reduced toxicity of ABI-007 compared with standard paclitaxel. Patients were randomly assigned to 3-week cycles of either ABI-007 260 mg/m(2) intravenously without premedication (n = 229) or standard paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) intravenously with premedication (n = 225). ABI-007 demonstrated significantly higher response rates compared with standard paclitaxel (33% v 19%, respectively; P = .001) and significantly longer time to tumor progression (23.0 v 16.9 weeks, respectively; hazard ratio = 0.75; P = .006). The incidence of grade 4 neutropenia was significantly lower for ABI-007 compared with standard paclitaxel (9% v 22%, respectively; P < .001) despite a 49% higher paclitaxel dose. Febrile neutropenia was uncommon (< 2%), and the incidence did not differ between the two study arms. Grade 3 sensory neuropathy was more common in the ABI-007 arm than in the standard paclitaxel arm (10% v 2%, respectively; P < .001) but was easily managed and improved rapidly (median, 22 days). No hypersensitivity reactions occurred with ABI-007 despite the absence of premedication and shorter administration time. ABI-007 demonstrated greater efficacy and a favorable safety profile compared with standard paclitaxel in this patient population. The improved therapeutic index and elimination of corticosteroid premedication required for solvent-based taxanes make the novel albumin-bound paclitaxel ABI-007 an important advance in the treatment of MBC.
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            Cremophor EL: the drawbacks and advantages of vehicle selection for drug formulation.

            Cremophor EL (CrEL) is a formulation vehicle used for various poorly-water soluble drugs, including the anticancer agent paclitaxel (Taxol). In contrast to earlier reports, CrEL is not an inert vehicle, but exerts a range of biological effects, some of which have important clinical implications. Its use has been associated with severe anaphylactoid hypersensitivity reactions, hyperlipidaemia, abnormal lipoprotein patterns, aggregation of erythrocytes and peripheral neuropathy. The pharmacokinetic behaviour of CrEL is dose-independent, although its clearance is highly influenced by duration of the infusion. This is particularly important since CrEL can affect the disposition of various drugs by changing the unbound drug concentration through micellar encapsulation. In addition, it has been shown that CrEL, as an integral component of paclitaxel chemotherapy, modifies the toxicity profile of certain anticancer agents given concomitantly, by mechanisms other than kinetic interference. A clear understanding of the biological and pharmacological role of CrEL is essential to help oncologists avoid side-effects associated with the use of paclitaxel or other agents using this vehicle. With the present development of various new anticancer agents, it is recommended that alternative formulation approaches should be pursued to allow a better control of the toxicity of the treatment and the pharmacological interactions related to the use of CrEL.
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              Taxol: a novel investigational antimicrotubule agent.

              Microtubules are among the most strategic subcellular targets of anticancer chemotherapeutics. Despite this fact, new antimicrotubule agents that possess unique mechanisms of cytotoxic action and have broader antineoplastic spectra than the vinca alkaloids have not been introduced over the last several decades--until the recent development of taxol. Unlike classical antimicrotubule agents like colchicine and the vinca alkaloids, which induce depolymerization of microtubules, taxol induces tubulin polymerization and forms extremely stable and nonfunctional microtubules. Taxol has demonstrated broad activity in preclinical screening studies, and antineoplastic activity has been observed in several classically refractory tumors. These tumors include cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma in phase II trials and malignant melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma in phase I studies. Taxol's structural complexity has hampered the development of feasible processes for synthesis, and its extreme scarcity has limited the use of a conventional, broad-scale screening approach for evaluation of clinical antitumor activity. However, taxol's unique mechanism of action, its spectrum of preclinical antitumor activity, and tumor responses in early clinical trials have generated renewed interest in pursuing its development.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                20 May 2019
                2019
                : 13
                : 1739-1749
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Sciences, Shanghai University , Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xiaoyan ChenShanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences , 501 Haike Road, Shanghai201203, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 215 080 0738Fax +86 215 080 0738Email xychen@ 123456simm.ac.cn
                Article
                200679
                10.2147/DDDT.S200679
                6535670
                31190752
                © 2019 Li et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 7, References: 41, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Research

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