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      Enhanced TH17 Responses in Patients with IL10 Receptor Deficiency and Infantile-onset IBD :

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          Interleukin-10-deficient mice develop chronic enterocolitis.

          Interleukin-10 (IL-10) affects the growth and differentiation of many hemopoietic cells in vitro; in particular, it is a potent suppressor of macrophage and T cell functions. In IL-10-deficient mice, generated by gene targeting, lymphocyte development and antibody responses are normal, but most animals are growth retarded and anemic and suffer from chronic enterocolitis. Alterations in intestine include extensive mucosal hyperplasia, inflammatory reactions, and aberrant expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on epithelia. In contrast, mutants kept under specific pathogen-free conditions develop only a local inflammation limited to the proximal colon. These results indicate that the bowel inflammation in the mutants originates from uncontrolled immune responses stimulated by enteric antigens and that IL-10 is an essential immunoregulator in the intestinal tract.
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            RNAscope: a novel in situ RNA analysis platform for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

            In situ analysis of biomarkers is highly desirable in molecular pathology because it allows the examination of biomarker status within the histopathological context of clinical specimens. Immunohistochemistry and DNA in situ hybridization (ISH) are widely used in clinical settings to assess protein and DNA biomarkers, respectively, but clinical use of in situ RNA analysis is rare. This disparity is especially notable when considering the abundance of RNA biomarkers discovered through whole-genome expression profiling. This is largely due to the high degree of technical complexity and insufficient sensitivity and specificity of current RNA ISH techniques. Here, we describe RNAscope, a novel RNA ISH technology with a unique probe design strategy that allows simultaneous signal amplification and background suppression to achieve single-molecule visualization while preserving tissue morphology. RNAscope is compatible with routine formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens and can use either conventional chromogenic dyes for bright-field microscopy or fluorescent dyes for multiplex analysis. Unlike grind-and-bind RNA analysis methods such as real-time RT-PCR, RNAscope brings the benefits of in situ analysis to RNA biomarkers and may enable rapid development of RNA ISH-based molecular diagnostic assays. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease.

              Cytokines have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, where they control multiple aspects of the inflammatory response. In particular, the imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines that occurs in IBD impedes the resolution of inflammation and instead leads to disease perpetuation and tissue destruction. Recent studies suggest the existence of a network of regulatory cytokines that has important implications for disease progression. In this Review, we discuss the role of cytokines produced by innate and adaptive immune cells, as well as their relevance to the future therapy of IBD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
                Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                1078-0998
                2017
                November 2017
                : 23
                : 11
                : 1950-1961
                Article
                10.1097/MIB.0000000000001270
                © 2017

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