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      Whole Brain Mapping of Long-Range Direct Input to Glutamatergic and GABAergic Neurons in Motor Cortex

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          Long-range neuronal circuits play an important role in motor and sensory information processing. Determining direct synaptic inputs of excited and inhibited neurons is important for understanding the circuit mechanisms involved in regulating movement. Here, we used the monosynaptic rabies tracing technique, combined with fluorescent micro-optical sectional tomography, to characterize the brain-wide input to the motor cortex (MC). The whole brain dataset showed that the main excited and inhibited neurons in the MC received inputs from similar brain regions with a quantitative difference. With 3D reconstruction we found that the distribution of input neurons, that target the primary and secondary MC, had different patterns. In the cortex, the neurons projecting to the primary MC mainly distributed in the lateral and anterior portion, while those to the secondary MC distributed in the medial and posterior portion. The input neurons in the subcortical areas also showed the topographic shift model, as in the thalamus, the neurons distributed as outer and inner shells while the neurons in the claustrum and amygdala were in the ventral and dorsal part, respectively. These results lay the anatomical foundation to understanding the organized pattern of motor circuits and the functional differences between the primary and secondary MC.

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          Most cited references 44

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          A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain.

          Comprehensive knowledge of the brain's wiring diagram is fundamental for understanding how the nervous system processes information at both local and global scales. However, with the singular exception of the C. elegans microscale connectome, there are no complete connectivity data sets in other species. Here we report a brain-wide, cellular-level, mesoscale connectome for the mouse. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas uses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing adeno-associated viral vectors to trace axonal projections from defined regions and cell types, and high-throughput serial two-photon tomography to image the EGFP-labelled axons throughout the brain. This systematic and standardized approach allows spatial registration of individual experiments into a common three dimensional (3D) reference space, resulting in a whole-brain connectivity matrix. A computational model yields insights into connectional strength distribution, symmetry and other network properties. Virtual tractography illustrates 3D topography among interconnected regions. Cortico-thalamic pathway analysis demonstrates segregation and integration of parallel pathways. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a freely available, foundational resource for structural and functional investigations into the neural circuits that support behavioural and cognitive processes in health and disease.
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            Monosynaptic restriction of transsynaptic tracing from single, genetically targeted neurons.

            There has never been a wholesale way of identifying neurons that are monosynaptically connected either to some other cell group or, especially, to a single cell. The best available tools, transsynaptic tracers, are unable to distinguish weak direct connections from strong indirect ones. Furthermore, no tracer has proven potent enough to label any connected neurons whatsoever when starting from a single cell. Here we present a transsynaptic tracer that crosses only one synaptic step, unambiguously identifying cells directly presynaptic to the starting population. Based on rabies virus, it is genetically targetable, allows high-level expression of any gene of interest in the synaptically coupled neurons, and robustly labels connections made to single cells. This technology should enable a far more detailed understanding of neural connectivity than has previously been possible.
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              Leptin action on GABAergic neurons prevents obesity and reduces inhibitory tone to POMC neurons.

              Leptin acts in the brain to prevent obesity. The underlying neurocircuitry responsible for this is poorly understood, in part because of incomplete knowledge regarding first-order, leptin-responsive neurons. To address this, we and others have been removing leptin receptors from candidate first-order neurons. While functionally relevant neurons have been identified, the observed effects have been small, suggesting that most first-order neurons remain unidentified. Here we take an alternative approach and test whether first-order neurons are inhibitory (GABAergic, VGAT⁺) or excitatory (glutamatergic, VGLUT2⁺). Remarkably, the vast majority of leptin's antiobesity effects are mediated by GABAergic neurons; glutamatergic neurons play only a minor role. Leptin, working directly on presynaptic GABAergic neurons, many of which appear not to express AgRP, reduces inhibitory tone to postsynaptic POMC neurons. As POMC neurons prevent obesity, their disinhibition by leptin action on presynaptic GABAergic neurons probably mediates, at least in part, leptin's antiobesity effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Front Neuroanat
                Front Neuroanat
                Front. Neuroanat.
                Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                17 April 2019
                : 13
                1Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Huazhong University of Science and Technology , Wuhan, China
                2MoE Key Laboratory for Biomedical Photonics, School of Engineering Sciences, Huazhong University of Science and Technology , Wuhan, China
                3HUST-Suzhou Institute for Brainsmatics , Suzhou, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Yun-Qing Li, Fourth Military Medical University, China

                Reviewed by: Kazunari Miyamichi, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, Japan; Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida, Harvard University, United States

                *Correspondence: Xiangning Li, lixiangning@
                Copyright © 2019 Luo, Li, Zheng, Han, Tian, Xu, Gong and Li.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 13, Words: 0
                Original Research


                motor cortex, whole brain, long-range input, distinct distribution, 3d


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