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      Tear Metabolomics in Dry Eye Disease: A Review


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          Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial syndrome that can be caused by alteration in the quality or quantity of the precorneal tear film. It is considered one of the most common ocular conditions leading patients to seek eye care. The current method for diagnostic evaluations and follow-up examinations of DED is a combination of clinical signs and symptoms determined by clinical tests and questionnaires, respectively. The application of powerful omics technologies has opened new avenues toward analysis of subjects in health and disease. Metabolomics is a new emerging and complementary research discipline to all modern omics in the comprehensive analysis of biological systems. The identification of distinct metabolites and integrated metabolic profiles in patients can potentially inform clinicians at an early stage or during monitoring of disease progression, enhancing diagnosis, prognosis, and the choice of therapy. In ophthalmology, metabolomics has gained considerable attention over the past decade but very limited such studies have been reported on DED. This paper aims to review the application of tear metabolomics in DED.

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          Most cited references130

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          Systems level studies of mammalian metabolomes: the roles of mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

          The study of biological systems in a holistic manner (systems biology) is increasingly being viewed as a necessity to provide qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the emergent properties of the complete system. Systems biology performs studies focussed on the complex interactions of system components; emphasising the whole system rather than the individual parts. Many perturbations to mammalian systems (diet, disease, drugs) are multi-factorial and the study of small parts of the system is insufficient to understand the complete phenotypic changes induced. Metabolomics is one functional level tool being employed to investigate the complex interactions of metabolites with other metabolites (metabolism) but also the regulatory role metabolites provide through interaction with genes, transcripts and proteins (e.g. allosteric regulation). Technological developments are the driving force behind advances in scientific knowledge. Recent advances in the two analytical platforms of mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have driven forward the discipline of metabolomics. In this critical review, an introduction to metabolites, metabolomes, metabolomics and the role of MS and NMR spectroscopy will be provided. The applications of metabolomics in mammalian systems biology for the study of the health-disease continuum, drug efficacy and toxicity and dietary effects on mammalian health will be reviewed. The current limitations and future goals of metabolomics in systems biology will also be discussed (374 references).
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            TFOS DEWS II Tear Film Report

            The members of the Tear Film Subcommittee reviewed the role of the tear film in dry eye disease (DED). The Subcommittee reviewed biophysical and biochemical aspects of tears and how these change in DED. Clinically, DED is characterized by loss of tear volume, more rapid breakup of the tear film and increased evaporation of tears from the ocular surface. The tear film is composed of many substances including lipids, proteins, mucins and electrolytes. All of these contribute to the integrity of the tear film but exactly how they interact is still an area of active research. Tear film osmolarity increases in DED. Changes to other components such as proteins and mucins can be used as biomarkers for DED. The Subcommittee recommended areas for future research to advance our understanding of the tear film and how this changes with DED. The final report was written after review by all Subcommittee members and the entire TFOS DEWS II membership.
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              Metabolomics enables precision medicine: “A White Paper, Community Perspective”

              Introduction: Background to metabolomics Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of the metabolome, the repertoire of biochemicals (or small molecules) present in cells, tissues, and body fluids. The study of metabolism at the global or “-omics” level is a rapidly growing field that has the potential to have a profound impact upon medical practice. At the center of metabolomics, is the concept that a person’s metabolic state provides a close representation of that individual’s overall health status. This metabolic state reflects what has been encoded by the genome, and modified by diet, environmental factors, and the gut microbiome. The metabolic profile provides a quantifiable readout of biochemical state from normal physiology to diverse pathophysiologies in a manner that is often not obvious from gene expression analyses. Today, clinicians capture only a very small part of the information contained in the metabolome, as they routinely measure only a narrow set of blood chemistry analytes to assess health and disease states. Examples include measuring glucose to monitor diabetes, measuring cholesterol and high density lipoprotein/low density lipoprotein ratio to assess cardiovascular health, BUN and creatinine for renal disorders, and measuring a panel of metabolites to diagnose potential inborn errors of metabolism in neonates. Objectives of White Paper—expected treatment outcomes and metabolomics enabling tool for precision medicine We anticipate that the narrow range of chemical analyses in current use by the medical community today will be replaced in the future by analyses that reveal a far more comprehensive metabolic signature. This signature is expected to describe global biochemical aberrations that reflect patterns of variance in states of wellness, more accurately describe specific diseases and their progression, and greatly aid in differential diagnosis. Such future metabolic signatures will: (1) provide predictive, prognostic, diagnostic, and surrogate markers of diverse disease states; (2) inform on underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases; (3) allow for sub-classification of diseases, and stratification of patients based on metabolic pathways impacted; (4) reveal biomarkers for drug response phenotypes, providing an effective means to predict variation in a subject’s response to treatment (pharmacometabolomics); (5) define a metabotype for each specific genotype, offering a functional read-out for genetic variants: (6) provide a means to monitor response and recurrence of diseases, such as cancers: (7) describe the molecular landscape in human performance applications and extreme environments. Importantly, sophisticated metabolomic analytical platforms and informatics tools have recently been developed that make it possible to measure thousands of metabolites in blood, other body fluids, and tissues. Such tools also enable more robust analysis of response to treatment. New insights have been gained about mechanisms of diseases, including neuropsychiatric disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancers, diabetes and a range of pathologies. A series of ground breaking studies supported by National Institute of Health (NIH) through the Pharmacometabolomics Research Network and its partnership with the Pharmacogenomics Research Network illustrate how a patient’s metabotype at baseline, prior to treatment, during treatment, and post-treatment, can inform about treatment outcomes and variations in responsiveness to drugs (e.g., statins, antidepressants, antihypertensives and antiplatelet therapies). These studies along with several others also exemplify how metabolomics data can complement and inform genetic data in defining ethnic, sex, and gender basis for variation in responses to treatment, which illustrates how pharmacometabolomics and pharmacogenomics are complementary and powerful tools for precision medicine. Conclusions: Key scientific concepts and recommendations for precision medicine Our metabolomics community believes that inclusion of metabolomics data in precision medicine initiatives is timely and will provide an extremely valuable layer of data that compliments and informs other data obtained by these important initiatives. Our Metabolomics Society, through its “Precision Medicine and Pharmacometabolomics Task Group”, with input from our metabolomics community at large, has developed this White Paper where we discuss the value and approaches for including metabolomics data in large precision medicine initiatives. This White Paper offers recommendations for the selection of state of-the-art metabolomics platforms and approaches that offer the widest biochemical coverage, considers critical sample collection and preservation, as well as standardization of measurements, among other important topics. We anticipate that our metabolomics community will have representation in large precision medicine initiatives to provide input with regard to sample acquisition/preservation, selection of optimal omics technologies, and key issues regarding data collection, interpretation, and dissemination. We strongly recommend the collection and biobanking of samples for precision medicine initiatives that will take into consideration needs for large-scale metabolic phenotyping studies.

                Author and article information

                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                01 August 2019
                August 2019
                : 20
                : 15
                : 3755
                [1 ]Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, 0450 Oslo, Norway
                [2 ]Center for Eye Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, 0450 Oslo, Norway
                [3 ]The Norwegian Dry Eye Clinic, 0366 Oslo, Norway
                [4 ]Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, 0027 Oslo, Norway
                [5 ]Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, 0450 Oslo, Norway
                [6 ]Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, 0450 Oslo, Norway
                [7 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, 3019 Drammen, Norway
                [8 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Stavanger University Hospital, 4011 Stavanger, Norway
                [9 ]Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
                [10 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Sørlandet Hospital Arendal, 4604 Arendal, Norway
                [11 ]Department of Life Sciences and Health, Oslo Metropolitan University, 0130 Oslo, Norway
                [12 ]Department of Computer Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University, 0130 Oslo, Norway
                [13 ]Department of Product Design, Oslo Metropolitan University, 0130 Oslo, Norway
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: mazyar.yazdani.edu@ 123456gmail.com ; Tel.: +47-22119481
                Author information
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 05 July 2019
                : 30 July 2019

                Molecular biology
                metabolomics,tear,dry eye disease,ophthalmology
                Molecular biology
                metabolomics, tear, dry eye disease, ophthalmology


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