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      20 Years of ASSC: are we ready for its coming of age?

      1

      Neuroscience of Consciousness

      Oxford University Press

      Consciousness, Information integration theory, Higher-order theory

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          This is a subjective summary of the recent meeting of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness (ASSC) in Buenos Aires (2016), with some highlights, as well as reflections on the state of the field in general. I argue that we are likely at a critical point where the field is in the process of transforming itself, and the ASSC meeting is accordingly becoming the premier venue to update each other on the latest exciting findings, rigorous methods, and novel ideas. I also discuss the rapidly changing roles of authoritative opinion and theoretical ideas based largely on speculation, whether we still need them, and where may be the best venues for disseminating them.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Continuous flash suppression reduces negative afterimages.

          Illusions that produce perceptual suppression despite constant retinal input are used to manipulate visual consciousness. Here we report on a powerful variant of existing techniques, continuous flash suppression. Distinct images flashed successively at approximately 10 Hz into one eye reliably suppress an image presented to the other eye. The duration of perceptual suppression is at least ten times greater than that produced by binocular rivalry. Using this tool we show that the strength of the negative afterimage of an adaptor was reduced by half when it was perceptually suppressed by input from the other eye. The more completely the adaptor was suppressed, the more strongly the afterimage intensity was reduced. Paradoxically, trial-to-trial visibility of the adaptor did not correlate with the degree of reduction. Our results imply that formation of afterimages involves neuronal structures that access input from both eyes but that do not correspond directly to the neuronal correlates of perceptual awareness.
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            Perceptual learning incepted by decoded fMRI neurofeedback without stimulus presentation.

            It is controversial whether the adult primate early visual cortex is sufficiently plastic to cause visual perceptual learning (VPL). The controversy occurs partially because most VPL studies have examined correlations between behavioral and neural activity changes rather than cause-and-effect relationships. With an online-feedback method that uses decoded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals, we induced activity patterns only in early visual cortex corresponding to an orientation without stimulus presentation or participants' awareness of what was to be learned. The induced activation caused VPL specific to the orientation. These results suggest that early visual areas are so plastic that mere inductions of activity patterns are sufficient to cause VPL. This technique can induce plasticity in a highly selective manner, potentially leading to powerful training and rehabilitative protocols.
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              Characterizing the dynamics of mental representations: the temporal generalization method.

               J-R. King,  S Dehaene (2014)
              Parsing a cognitive task into a sequence of operations is a central problem in cognitive neuroscience. We argue that a major advance is now possible owing to the application of pattern classifiers to time-resolved recordings of brain activity [electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), or intracranial recordings]. By testing at which moment a specific mental content becomes decodable in brain activity, we can characterize the time course of cognitive codes. Most importantly, the manner in which the trained classifiers generalize across time, and from one experimental condition to another, sheds light on the temporal organization of information-processing stages. A repertoire of canonical dynamical patterns is observed across various experiments and brain regions. This method thus provides a novel way to understand how mental representations are manipulated and transformed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Neurosci Conscious
                Neurosci Conscious
                nconsc
                Neuroscience of Consciousness
                Oxford University Press
                2057-2107
                2017
                04 May 2017
                04 May 2017
                : 2017
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Psychology & Brain Research Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence address. Department of Psychology & Brain Research Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA. E-mail: hakwan@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                nix008
                10.1093/nc/nix008
                6007187
                © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

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                Pages: 4
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