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      Adaptation and validation of the Hungarian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale for Children

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          Childhood obesity proves to be an important public health issue, since it serves as a potential risk factor for multiple diseases. Food addiction could also serve as an important etiological factor. As childhood obesity plays a serious issue also in Hungary, we aimed to adapt and validate the Hungarian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale for Children (H-YFAS-C).


          A total of 191 children were assessed with the H-YFAS-C and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). The following psychometric properties were analyzed: internal consistency, construct validity, convergent, and discriminant validity.


          A good construct validity was revealed by confirmatory factor analysis (RMSEA = 0.0528, CFI = 0.896, χ 2 value = 279.06). Question 25 proved to have no significant effect on its group and was removed from further analyses. The Kuder–Richardson 20 coefficient indicated good internal consistency (K20 = 0.82). With the use of the eight EDI subscales, a good convergent and discriminant validity could be determined. Food addiction was diagnosed in 8.9% of children. The mean symptom count was 1.7 ± 1.2 (range: 0–7). Females were more often diagnosed with food addiction than males ( p = .016; OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.2–10.6). BMI percentiles were significantly higher in children with diagnosed food addiction ( p = .003). There proved to be no correlation between age and the occurrence of food addiction.

          Discussion and conclusion

          Our results show that H-YFAS-C is a good and reliable tool for addictive-like behavior assessment.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Preliminary validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale.

          Previous research has found similarities between addiction to psychoactive substances and excessive food consumption. Further exploration is needed to evaluate the concept of "food addiction," as there is currently a lack of psychometrically validated measurement tools in this area. The current study represents a preliminary exploration of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), designed to identify those exhibiting signs of addiction towards certain types of foods (e.g., high fat and high sugar). Survey data were collected from 353 respondents from a stratified random sample of young adults. In addition to the YFAS, the survey assessed eating pathology, alcohol consumption and other health behaviors. The YFAS exhibited adequate internal reliability, and showed good convergent validity with measures of similar constructs and good discriminant validity relative to related but dissimilar constructs. Additionally, the YFAS predicted binge-eating behavior above and beyond existing measures of eating pathology, demonstrating incremental validity. The YFAS is a sound tool for identifying eating patterns that are similar to behaviors seen in classic areas of addiction. Further evaluation of the scale is needed, especially due to a low response rate of 24.5% and a non-clinical sample, but confirmation of the reliability and validity of the scale has the potential to facilitate empirical research on the concept of "food addiction".
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            An examination of the food addiction construct in obese patients with binge eating disorder.

            This study examined the psychometric properties of the Yale food addiction scale (YFAS) in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) and explored its association with measures of eating disorder and associated psychopathology. Eighty-one obese treatment-seeking BED patients were given the YFAS, structured interviews to assess psychiatric disorders and eating disorder psychopathology, and other pathology measures. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution with an excellent fit. Classification of "food addiction" was met by 57% of BED patients. Patients classified as meeting YFAS "food addiction" criteria had significantly higher levels of depression, negative affect, emotion dysregulation, eating disorder psychopathology, and lower self-esteem. YFAS scores were also significant predictors of binge eating frequency above and beyond other measures. The subset of BED patients classified as having YFAS "food addiction" appear to represent a more disturbed variant characterized by greater eating disorder psychopathology and associated pathology. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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              The association of "food addiction" with disordered eating and body mass index.

              The contribution of an addictive process to elevated body mass index (BMI) and disordered eating is an area of growing interest. Yet, little is known about how "food addiction" may be related to disordered eating and obesity. The ability of addictive-like eating to account for eating pathology not captured by traditional eating disorders is unknown. No prior research has examined the association of "food addiction" with bulimia nervosa (BN). Finally, little is understood about the association of "food addiction" with patterns of dieting and weight gain. The current study was conducted to address these gaps in the literature. Participants (N=815) were recruited from online advertisements nationwide and completed measures related to "food addiction", BMI, weight history, and disordered eating. Addictive-like eating was associated with elevated current and lifetime highest BMI, weight cycling, and eating pathology. The prevalence of "food addiction" was higher in participants with BN than in those with binge eating disorder (BED). "Food addiction" continued to be related to clinically relevant variables, especially elevated BMI, even when participants did not meet criteria for BED or BN. The co-occurrence of "food addiction" with eating disorders appears to be associated with a more severe variant of eating pathology. An addictive-type response to highly palatable food may be contributing to eating-related problems, including obesity and eating disorders. BN relative to BED appears to be more strongly associated with "food addiction." Additionally, the concept of "food addiction" appears to capture clinically relevant information in participants who do not meet criteria for either BN or BED. Further examination of "food addiction" may be important in understanding the mechanisms underlying certain types of problematic eating behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                30 January 2018
                March 2018
                : 7
                : 1
                : 181-188
                [ 1 ]Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pécs , Pécs, Hungary
                [ 2 ]Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, University of Pécs , Pécs, Hungary
                [ 3 ]Department of Psychology, University of Michigan , Ann Arbor, MI, USA
                [ 4 ]Faculty of Science, Institute of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, University of Pécs , Pécs, Hungary
                [ 5 ]Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Pécs , Pécs, Hungary
                [ 6 ]Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Pécs , Pécs, Hungary
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Dalma Tényi; Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, University of Pécs, Rét u.2., 7623 Pécs, Hungary; Phone: +36 72 536 000; Fax: +36 72 535 911; E-mail: tenyidalma@
                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 8
                Funding sources: TT was supported by the National Brain Research Program Grant no. NAP KTIA NAP-A-II/12. JJ was supported by the National Brain Research Program Grant no. KTIA NAP-13-a-II/9. DT was supported by the ÚNKP-16-3 New National Excellence Program of The Ministry of Human Capacities.
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