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      Tumors of the ocular surface: A review

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          Abstract

          Tumors of the Ocular Surface clinically manifest with a very wide spectrum and include several forms of epithelial, stromal, caruncular, and secondary tumors. As a group, these tumors are seen commonly in the clinical practice of a comprehensive ophthalmologist, cornea specialist, and an ocular oncologist. This review is aimed to discuss the common tumors of the ocular surface and emphasize on their clinical diagnosis and appropriate management.

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          Most cited references 96

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          Clinical survey of 1643 melanocytic and nonmelanocytic conjunctival tumors.

          To report the spectrum and frequency of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic conjunctival tumors in an ocular oncology practice. Retrospective noninterventional case series. One thousand six hundred forty-three consecutive patients with a conjunctival mass evaluated at an ocular oncology department. A chart review was conducted to obtain the clinical features of the patient and tumor and to tabulate and categorize the diagnoses. Tumor diagnosis overall and relative to patient age, race, and gender and relative to tumor location and laterality. In 1643 consecutive patients, the tumor was classified as melanocytic in 872 cases (53%) and nonmelanocytic in 771 cases (47%). The nonmelanocytic categories included congenital choristomatous (n = 40 [2%]), epithelial (n = 219 [13%]), vascular (n = 63 [4%]), fibrous (n = 7 [ 60. Of the 219 patients with epithelial tumors, 80% occurred in males, whereas the incidence of melanocytic lesions was equal in males and females. African-American patients represented only 7% of epithelial tumors, <1% of melanomas, and 8% of lymphoid tumors. Conjunctival tumors were of melanocytic origin in 53% of cases and nonmelanocytic origin in 47%. Overall, melanocytic tumors, epithelial tumors, and lymphoid tumors accounted for 74% of all cases. These tumors were far more common in Caucasian patients, and epithelial tumors were found more frequently in men.
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            Tumors of the conjunctiva and cornea.

            Tumors of the conjunctiva and cornea comprise a large and varied spectrum of conditions. These tumors are grouped into two major categories of congenital and acquired lesions. The acquired lesions are further subdivided based on origin of the mass into surface epithelial, melanocytic, vascular, fibrous, neural, histiocytic, myxoid, myogenic, lipomatous, lymphoid, leukemic, metastatic and secondary tumors. Melanocytic lesions include nevus, racial melanosis, primary acquired melanosis, melanoma, and other ocular surface conditions like ocular melanocytosis and secondary pigmentary deposition. The most frequent nonmelanocytic neoplastic lesions include squamous cell carcinoma and lymphoma, both of which have typical features appreciated on clinical examination. The caruncle displays a slightly different array of tumors compared to those elsewhere on the conjunctiva, as nevus and papilloma are most common, but oncocytoma and sebaceous gland hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma can be found. In this report, we provide clinical description and illustration of the many conjunctival and corneal tumors and we discuss tumor management.
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              Ocular surface squamous neoplasia.

               G A Lee,  L Hirst (2016)
              Ocular surface squamous neoplasia presents as a spectrum from simple dysplasia to carcinoma in situ to invasive squamous cell carcinoma involving the conjunctiva as well as the cornea. It is a distinct clinical entity, although it has been known by a variety of different names throughout the literature. Most commonly it arises in the limbal region, occurring particularly in elderly males who have lived in geographic areas exposed to high levels of ultraviolet-B radiation. Symptoms range from none to severe pain and visual loss. The development of preoperative diagnostic techniques, such as impression cytology, are of value in clinical decision making and follow-up management. Simple excision with adequate margins is currently the best established form of treatment despite trials of other modalities. The course of this disease may be evanescent, but is more frequently slowly progressive and may require exenteration and occasionally may lead to death.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian J Ophthalmol
                Indian J Ophthalmol
                IJO
                Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0301-4738
                1998-3689
                March 2015
                : 63
                : 3
                : 187-203
                Affiliations
                Department of Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery and Ocular Oncology, Centre for Sight, Hyderabad, India
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery and Ocular Oncology, CMER Dennis Lam Eye Institute, Shenzhen, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr. Santosh G Honavar, Department of Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery and Ocular Oncology, Centre for Sight, Road No 2, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad 500034, Telangana, India. E-mail: santosh.honavar@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                IJO-63-187
                10.4103/0301-4738.156912
                4448231
                25971163
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Ophthalmology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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