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      Evolution of In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Equine Clinical Isolates in France between 2016 and 2019

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          Abstract

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          The emergence and the spread of antimicrobial drug resistant bacteria around the world is a major public health issue. In fact, the transmission of these bacteria from animals to humans has been already observed. In this context, the close relationships between horses and humans may contribute to cross-infection. Our objective in this study was to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of major equine pathogens over a 4-year period (2016–2019). For this purpose, more than 7800 bacterial isolates collected from horses in France with different types of infection were phenotypically analysed for their antimicrobial susceptibility. An increase in the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter spp. was observed, especially between 2016 and 2019, with the percentage of multi-drug resistant strains rising from 24.5% to 37.4%, and from 26.3% to 51.7%, respectively. Our results point to the need to support veterinary antimicrobial stewardship to encourage the proper use of antibiotics.

          Abstract

          The present study described the evolution of antimicrobial resistance in equine pathogens isolated from 2016 to 2019. A collection of 7806 bacterial isolates were analysed for their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility using the disk diffusion method. The most frequently isolated pathogens were group C Streptococci (27.0%), Escherichia coli (18.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.3%) and Enterobacter spp. (2.1%). The majority of these pathogens were isolated from the genital tract (45.1%, n = 3522). With the implementation of two French national plans (named ECOANTIBIO 1 and 2) in 2012–2016 and 2017–2021, respectively, and a reduction in animal exposure to veterinary antibiotics, our study showed decreases in the resistance of group C Streptococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli against five classes, four classes and one class of antimicrobials tested, respectively. However, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter spp. presented an increased resistance against all the tested classes, excepted for two fifths of E. coli. Moreover, the percentages of multi-drug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter spp. also increased from 24.5% to 37.4% and from 26.3% to 51.7%, respectively. The data reported here are relevant to equine practitioners and will help to improve knowledge related to antimicrobial resistance in common equine pathogens.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Multiresistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from humans, companion animals and horses in central Hesse, Germany

          Background Multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are an emerging problem in human and veterinary medicine. This study focused on comparative molecular characterization of β-lactamase and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from central Hesse in Germany. Isolates originated from humans, companion animals (dogs and cats) and horses. Results In this study 153 (83.6%) of the human isolates (n = 183) and 163 (91.6%) of the animal isolates (n = 178) were confirmed as ESBL producers by PCR and subsequent sequencing of the PCR amplicons. Predominant ESBL subtypes in human and animal samples were CTX-M-15 (49.3%) and CTX-M-1 (25.8%) respectively. Subtype bla CTX-M-2 was found almost exclusively in equine and was absent from human isolates. The carbapenemase OXA-48 was detected in 19 ertapenem-resistant companion animal isolates in this study. The Plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene aac(‘6)-Ib-cr was the most frequently detected antibiotic- resistance gene present in 27.9% of the human and 36.9% of the animal ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Combinations of two or up to six different resistance genes (penicillinases, ESBLs and PMQR) were detected in 70% of all isolates investigated. The most frequent species in this study was Escherichia coli (74%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.5%), and Enterobacter cloacae (4.2%). Investigation of Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups revealed underrepresentation of group B2 within the animal isolates. Conclusions Isolates from human, companion animals and horses shared several characteristics regarding presence of ESBL, PMQR and combination of different resistance genes. The results indicate active transmission and dissemination of multi-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among human and animal populations.
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            Bacteria from Animals as a Pool of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes

            Antimicrobial agents are used in both veterinary and human medicine. The intensive use of antimicrobials in animals may promote the fixation of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria, which may be zoonotic or capable to transfer these genes to human-adapted pathogens or to human gut microbiota via direct contact, food or the environment. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the use of antimicrobial agents in animal health and explores the role of bacteria from animals as a pool of antimicrobial resistance genes for human bacteria. This review focused in relevant examples within the ESC(K)APE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile (Klebsiella pneumoniae), Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae) group of bacterial pathogens that are the leading cause of nosocomial infections throughout the world.
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              Whole inactivated equine influenza vaccine: Efficacy against a representative clade 2 equine influenza virus, IFNgamma synthesis and duration of humoral immunity.

              Equine influenza (EI) is a serious respiratory disease of horses induced by the equine influenza virus (EIV). Surveillance, quarantine procedures and vaccination are widely used to prevent or to contain the disease. This study aimed to further characterise the immune response induced by a non-updated inactivated EI and tetanus vaccine, including protection against a representative EIV isolate of the Florida clade 2 sublineage. Seven ponies were vaccinated twice with Duvaxyn IE-T Plus at an interval of four weeks. Five ponies remained unvaccinated. All ponies were experimentally infected with the EIV strain A/eq/Richmond/1/07 two weeks after the second vaccination. Clinical signs of disease were recorded and virus shedding was measured after experimental infection. Antibody response and EIV-specific IFNgamma synthesis, a marker of cell-mediated immunity, were measured at different time points of the study. Vaccination resulted in significant protection against clinical signs of disease induced by A/eq/Richmond/1/07 and reduced virus shedding when challenged at the peak of immunity. Antigenic drift has been shown to reduce protection against EIV infection. Inclusion of a more recent and representative EIV vaccine strain, as recommended by the OIE expert surveillance panel on equine influenza vaccine, may maximise field protection. In addition, significant levels of EIV-specific IFNgamma synthesis by peripheral blood lymphocytes were detected in immunised ponies, which provided a first evidence of CMI stimulation after vaccination with a whole inactivated EIV. Duration of humoral response was also retrospectively investigated in 14 horses vaccinated under field condition and following the appropriate immunisation schedule, up to 599 days after first immunisation. This study revealed that most immunised horses maintained significant levels of cross-reactive SRH antibody for a prolonged period of time, but individual monitoring may be beneficial to identify poor vaccine responders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Animals (Basel)
                Animals (Basel)
                animals
                Animals : an Open Access Journal from MDPI
                MDPI
                2076-2615
                07 May 2020
                May 2020
                : 10
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]LABÉO Frank Duncombe, 14053 CAEN, France; sophie.castagnet@ 123456laboratoire-labeo.fr (S.C.); karine.maillard@ 123456laboratoire-labeo.fr (K.M.); romain.paillot@ 123456laboratoire-labeo.fr (R.P.)
                [2 ]Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, U2RM, 14033 Caen, France; jean-christophe.giard@ 123456unicaen.fr
                [3 ]Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, Biotargen, 14033 Caen, France
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: albertine.leon@ 123456laboratoire-labeo.fr ; Tel.: +33-2-314-719-39
                Article
                animals-10-00812
                10.3390/ani10050812
                7278474
                32392891
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                epidemiology, antibiotic resistance, horse pathogens

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