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      Insulin Sensitivity Is Not Affected by Mutation of Codon 972 of the Human IRS-1 Gene

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          We investigated the relationship of codon 972 polymorphism of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) gene with insulin resistance in the Japanese population. Among 130 patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM), we identified 6 who were heterozygous for the Gly972Arg mutation. Among 144 healthy subjects, 6 were heterozygous and 1 was homozygous for the mutation. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp study was performed in 3 of 6 diabetic patients with the heterozygous Gly972Arg mutation and in 60 without it. Both groups showed almost the same levels of insulin sensitivity (glucose infusion rate, GIR = 50.2 ± 3.0 vs. 51.3 ± 12.1 μmol/kg/min). Similarly, there was no difference in insulin sensitivity between healthy subjects with and without the mutation using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index = 1.14 ± 0.50 vs. 1.02 ± 0.63). The frequency of the Gly972Arg allele was not increased in diabetic patients compared with control subjects even in aged (>50 years old) or obese (BMI ≥25) subjects. Among healthy subjects, we identified a 25-year-old male with the homozygous Gly972Arg allele. He was slightly obese (BMI = 25.5) but showed relatively high insulin sensitivity, almost equal to that of healthy subjects without the mutation (GIR = 67.2 vs. 71.8 ± 22.0 μmol/kg/min). Because the GIR in healthy subjects was significantly higher compared with that in type-2 DM patients, we speculate that another genetic or environmental factor producing a more deleterious effect on insulin sensitivity may exist in diabetic patients. We conclude that this gene abnormality does not play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type-2 DM.

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          4PS/insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 is the alternative substrate of the insulin receptor in IRS-1-deficient mice.

          Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is the major cytoplasmic substrate of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptors. Transgenic mice lacking IRS-1 are resistant to insulin and IGF-1, but exhibit significant residual insulin action which corresponds to the presence of an alternative high molecular weight substrate in liver and muscle. Recently, Sun et al. (Sun, X.-J., Wang, L.-M., Zhang, Y., Yenush, L. P., Myers, M. G., Jr., Glasheen, E., Lane, W.S., Pierce, J. H., and White, M. F. (1995) Nature 377, 173-177) purified and cloned 4PS, the major substrate of the IL-4 receptor-associated tyrosine kinase in myeloid cells, which has significant structural similarity to IRS-1. To determine if 4PS is the alternative substrate of the insulin receptor in IRS-1-deficient mice, we performed immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase assays using specific antibodies to 4PS. Following insulin stimulation, 4PS is rapidly phosphorylated in liver and muscle, binds to the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, and activates the enzyme. Insulin stimulation also results in the association of 4PS with Grb 2 in both liver and muscle. In IRS-1-deficient mice, both the phosphorylation of 4PS and associated PI 3-kinase activity are enhanced, without an increase in protein expression. Immunodepletion of 4PS from liver and muscle homogenates removes most of the phosphotyrosine-associated PI 3-kinase activity in IRS-1-deficient mice. Thus, 4PS is the primary alternative substrate, i.e. IRS-2, which plays a major role in physiologic insulin signal transduction via both PI 3-kinase activation and Grb 2/Sos association. In IRS-1-deficient mice, 4PS/IRS-2 provides signal transduction to these two major pathways of insulin signaling.
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            Relationship between insulin sensitivity and insulin receptor substrate-1 mutations in non-diabetic relatives of NIDDM families.

            Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) occupies a key position in the insulin-signalling pathway. Two mutations of the IRS-1 gene (Gly(972)Arg and Ala(513)Pro) have been described, although their roles in the development of insulin resistance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) remain controversial. Insulin resistance has been described in non-diabetic relatives of NIDDM families, suggesting that it may be due to an inherited defect of insulin action. We therefore examined the relationships between the two mutations and insulin sensitivity in 93 non-diabetic first degree relatives from North European families with 2 or more living NIDDM subjects. Anthropometric measurements, an oral glucose tolerance test, and an insulin tolerance test to assess insulin sensitivity (K(ITT)) were performed. Basal insulin sensitivity was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Comparisons were made between the following relative subgroups: with (n = 9) and without (n = 84) the 972 mutation; with (n = 5) and without (n = 88) the 513 mutation; and with either one or both mutations (n = 13) or without either (n = 80). General linear model analysis was used to compare K(ITT) and HOMA between the subgroups with the anthropometric variables known to influence insulin sensitivity as covariates. There were no significant differences between the subgroups for K(ITT) and HOMA. In conclusion, the 513 and 972 mutations, alone and in combination, are not associated with decreased insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic relatives of NIDDM families.
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              Molecular scanning of the glycogen synthase and insulin receptor substrate-1 genes in Japanese subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

              We studied a simple tandem repeat DNA polymorphism in the glycogen synthase gene and polymorphisms at codon 513 (Ala-->Pro) and 972 (Gly-->Arg) in the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) gene in 197 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and 178 control subjects in Japan. Eight alleles (-3G, -2G, -1G, 0G, 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G) were identified in the tandem repeat polymorphism in the glycogen synthase gene. No difference in the frequencies of these alleles was found between diabetics and controls. The codon 972 polymorphism of IRS-1 gene was observed in 7 diabetics (3.6%) and 8 controls (4.5%), whereas the codon 513 polymorphism was not found in either of the two groups. We conclude that the tandem repeat polymorphism in the glycogen synthase gene and the polymorphisms at codons 513 and 972 of the IRS-1 gene are not associated with a higher risk for the development of NIDDM in Japanese subjects.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                November 1999
                17 May 2000
                : 52
                : 5
                : 230-234
                Third Department of Internal Medicine, Mie University School of Medicine, Mie, Japan
                23466 Horm Res 1999;52:230–234
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Tables: 2, References: 25, Pages: 5
                Original Paper


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