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Chlorhexidine to treat oral mucositis in patients with acute leukemia: systematic review Translated title: Uso da clorexidina no tratamento da mucosite oral em pacientes com leucemia aguda: revisão sistemática

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      ABSTRACTBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Leukemias impair hematopoietic stem-cells shunting and promote a proliferation of malignant cells without functional competence. Studies point that oral manifestations such as pain, hyperplasia and gum bleeding may be one of the first signs in leukemia patients. In light of the above, this study aimed at carrying out a systematic analysis of articles published in the last 15 years, with regard to chlorhexidine to treat and prevent mucositis in acute leukemia children under chemotherapy.CONTENTS:A systematic search of articles published between January 2000 and January 2015 was carried out in Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct and LILACS databases. After systematic search, 6 articles have fulfilled all methodological inclusion criteria. Chlorhexidine is an important means of preventing and treating oral mucositis and studies refer that 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate effectiveness is probably related to its bactericide action. Adequate oral hygiene is important to prevent mucositis and other therapeutic modalities have shown to be effective to treat and prevent oral mucositis.CONCLUSION:Chlorhexidine gluconate does not totally eliminate oral mucosa injuries, but is able to decrease their frequency and intensity without significant noxious effects. However, other drugs compared to chlorhexidine in this study may present better results.

      Translated abstract

      RESUMOJUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS:As leucemias comprometem a derivação das células-tronco hematopoiéticas e promovem uma proliferação de células malignas sem competência funcional. Estudos apontam que manifestações orais como dor, hiperplasia e sangramento gengival podem ser um dos primeiros sinais em pacientes com leucemia. Diante do exposto, o objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise sistemática de artigos publicados nos últimos 15 anos, no que diz respeito ao uso da clorexidina no tratamento e prevenção da mucosite em crianças com leucemia aguda em quimioterapia.CONTEÚDO:Uma busca sistemática de artigos publicados entre janeiro de 2000 e janeiro de 2015 foi feita nas bases de dados Pubmed/Medline, Science Directe LILACS. Após pesquisa sistemática 6 artigos preencheram todos os critérios de inclusão metodológica. A clorexidina é um importante meio de prevenção e tratamento da mucosite oral e estudos referem que a efetividade do gluconato de clorexidina a 0,12% está provavelmente relacionada à sua ação bactericida. A correta higienização oral tem importante papel na prevenção da mucosite e outras formas terapêuticas demonstram ser eficazes no tratamento e prevenção da mucosite oral.CONCLUSÃO:O gluconato de clorexidina não elimina totalmente as lesões de mucosa oral, mas é capaz de diminuir sua frequência e intensidade sem apresentar efeitos deletérios significativos no paciente. Entretanto, outros fármacos comparados à clorexidina neste estudo podem apresentar melhores resultados.

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      Most cited references 30

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      Mucositis induced by antineoplastic drugs is an important, dose-limiting and costly side effect of cancer therapy. The ulcerative lesions which result are frequent systemic portals of entry for microorganisms which inhabit the mouth and consequently are often sources of systemic infection in the myelosuppressed patient. A number of clinical observations and the inconsistency of responses to a broad range of treatment modalities suggests a physiological complexity to mucositis which has not previously been comprehensively considered. We now propose a hypothesis as to the mechanism by which mucositis develops and resolves, which is based on four phases: an initial inflammatory/vascular phase; an epithelial phase; an ulcerative/bacteriological phase; and a healing phase. The role of cytokines as initiators and ampliers of the process is discussed, as is the potential influence of genetic factors in establishing risk and modifying the course of stomatotoxicity.
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          The relationship between mucosal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and experimental radiation-induced mucositis.

          Although cycloooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is upregulated by factors associated with oral mucositis, its role in the pathogenesis of mucositis has not been studied. We investigated the kinetics of mucosal COX-2 expression following radiation exposure, and assessed its relationship to the development of oral mucositis in an established animal model using immunohistochemical endpoints. While little or no COX-2 expression was observed in unirradiated mucosa or in tissue taken 2 days after radiation, COX-2 expression was dramatic on days 10 and 16, especially in submucosal fibroblasts and endothelium. The kinetics of COX-2 expression paralleled mucositis severity. A burst of angiogenic activity was seen on day 21 following peak COX-2 expression. The kinetics of COX-2 expression relative to mucositis progression suggests that COX-2 is not a primary driver of radiation injury, but instead plays an amplifying role.

            Author and article information

            [1 ] Universidade Potiguar Brazil
            [2 ] Universidade Potiguar Brazil
            [3 ] Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte Brazil
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Revista Dor
            Rev. dor
            Sociedade Brasileira para o Estudo da Dor (São Paulo )
            September 2015
            : 16
            : 3
            : 221-226


            Product Information: SciELO Brazil


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