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      Endotoxin-Free Dialysate Improves Response to Erythropoietin in Hemodialysis Patients



      S. Karger AG

      Endotoxin-free dialysate, Erythropoietin responsiveness, Hemodialysis, Renal anemia

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          Background/Aims: Inflammatory process induced by endotoxin is one of the causes of resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) in hemodialysis patients. Thus dialysate contaminated with endotoxin may diminish response to rHuEPO. We investigated whether dose of rHuEPO could be reduced with endotoxin-free ultrafiltered dialysate. Methods: Twenty-seven chronic hemodialysis patients receiving rHuEPO were studied. The patients did not have known causes of anemia other than chronic renal failure. An endotoxin-cut polyethylene ultrafilter was installed into the dialysate fluid circuit. Hematocrit and dose of rHuEPO were monitored before and after installation. Dose of rHuEPO was adjusted to keep hematocrit at about 30%. Endotoxin concentration of dialysate was measured by commercial limulus test (Endospecy<sup>®</sup>). Results: After installation of ultrafilter, dialysate endotoxin concentration decreased from >100 to <1.0 endotoxin units/liter (EU/l). Dose of rHuEPO decreased from 90.0 U/kg/week (median) to 57.3 U/kg/week (p < 0.05) and hematocrit increased from 30.3% (median) to 32.2% (p = 0.03) after 5 months of installation of ultrafilter. The running cost of the ultrafilter corresponded to only 4% of the cost of spared rHuEPO. Conclusions: Ultrafiltered endotoxin-free dialysate caused significant reduction in dose of rHuEPO to keep target hematocrit level. Endotoxin-cut ultrafilter was beneficial to hemodialysis patients in medical and in economical aspects.

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          Role of cytokines in the response to erythropoietin in hemodialysis patients.

          Cytokines are regulatory factors of erythropoiesis, especially in pathologic conditions. Even though a relevant role for a deranged cytokine production in the pathogenesis of dialysis anemia has been suggested, no data are available that analyze the role of cytokines in the key therapeutic issue of the needs of erythropoietin. The aim of the present study in hemodialysis patients was, therefore, to examine the relationship between the dose of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) and the production of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). After the exclusion of subjects with major active causes of EPO resistance, data from 34 hemodialysis patients were available for analysis. Cytokine levels were measured in the supernatants of stimulated [with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)] and unstimulated PBMC. Mean yearly values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation, ferritin, parathormone (PTH) and aluminum levels and EPO doses (U/kg/week) were calculated. For analysis, the 34 patients were divided according to their cutoff requirements for EPO: patients with requirements of EPO > or = 60 U/kg/week (group A1, 26 subjects) versus EPO or = 100 U/kg/week (group A2, 18 subjects) versus <100 U/kg/week (group B2, 16 subjects). A significant direct correlation between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) production values and EPO doses was found (P = 0.039 and P = 0.02 respectively). On the other hand, there was a significantly negative correlation between interleukin-12 (IL-12) production values and EPO doses (P = 0.029). Patients of groups A1 and A2 had spontaneously higher tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and lower IL-12 and IFNgamma production compared to patients from groups B1 and B2. Our data disclose a previously undescribed pattern of cytokine alteration that is relevant to determine increased needs of EPO in hemodialysis patients. The present results have potential applicability in designing strategies to improve EPO resistance.
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            Automated kinetic assay for endotoxin and in human blood


              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              September 2002
              26 September 2002
              : 92
              : 3
              : 601-604
              Nephrology Unit, Manda Memorial Hospital Diabetes Center, Sapporo, Japan
              64087 Nephron 2002;92:601–604
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 11, Pages: 4
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/64087
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