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      Endotoxin-Free Dialysate Improves Response to Erythropoietin in Hemodialysis Patients

      ,

      Nephron

      S. Karger AG

      Endotoxin-free dialysate, Erythropoietin responsiveness, Hemodialysis, Renal anemia

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Inflammatory process induced by endotoxin is one of the causes of resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) in hemodialysis patients. Thus dialysate contaminated with endotoxin may diminish response to rHuEPO. We investigated whether dose of rHuEPO could be reduced with endotoxin-free ultrafiltered dialysate. Methods: Twenty-seven chronic hemodialysis patients receiving rHuEPO were studied. The patients did not have known causes of anemia other than chronic renal failure. An endotoxin-cut polyethylene ultrafilter was installed into the dialysate fluid circuit. Hematocrit and dose of rHuEPO were monitored before and after installation. Dose of rHuEPO was adjusted to keep hematocrit at about 30%. Endotoxin concentration of dialysate was measured by commercial limulus test (Endospecy<sup>®</sup>). Results: After installation of ultrafilter, dialysate endotoxin concentration decreased from >100 to <1.0 endotoxin units/liter (EU/l). Dose of rHuEPO decreased from 90.0 U/kg/week (median) to 57.3 U/kg/week (p < 0.05) and hematocrit increased from 30.3% (median) to 32.2% (p = 0.03) after 5 months of installation of ultrafilter. The running cost of the ultrafilter corresponded to only 4% of the cost of spared rHuEPO. Conclusions: Ultrafiltered endotoxin-free dialysate caused significant reduction in dose of rHuEPO to keep target hematocrit level. Endotoxin-cut ultrafilter was beneficial to hemodialysis patients in medical and in economical aspects.

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          Role of cytokines in the response to erythropoietin in hemodialysis patients.

          Cytokines are regulatory factors of erythropoiesis, especially in pathologic conditions. Even though a relevant role for a deranged cytokine production in the pathogenesis of dialysis anemia has been suggested, no data are available that analyze the role of cytokines in the key therapeutic issue of the needs of erythropoietin. The aim of the present study in hemodialysis patients was, therefore, to examine the relationship between the dose of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) and the production of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). After the exclusion of subjects with major active causes of EPO resistance, data from 34 hemodialysis patients were available for analysis. Cytokine levels were measured in the supernatants of stimulated [with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)] and unstimulated PBMC. Mean yearly values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation, ferritin, parathormone (PTH) and aluminum levels and EPO doses (U/kg/week) were calculated. For analysis, the 34 patients were divided according to their cutoff requirements for EPO: patients with requirements of EPO > or = 60 U/kg/week (group A1, 26 subjects) versus EPO or = 100 U/kg/week (group A2, 18 subjects) versus <100 U/kg/week (group B2, 16 subjects). A significant direct correlation between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) production values and EPO doses was found (P = 0.039 and P = 0.02 respectively). On the other hand, there was a significantly negative correlation between interleukin-12 (IL-12) production values and EPO doses (P = 0.029). Patients of groups A1 and A2 had spontaneously higher tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and lower IL-12 and IFNgamma production compared to patients from groups B1 and B2. Our data disclose a previously undescribed pattern of cytokine alteration that is relevant to determine increased needs of EPO in hemodialysis patients. The present results have potential applicability in designing strategies to improve EPO resistance.
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            Automated kinetic assay for endotoxin and in human blood

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              Author and article information

              Journal
              NEF
              Nephron
              10.1159/issn.1660-8151
              Nephron
              S. Karger AG
              1660-8151
              2235-3186
              2002
              September 2002
              26 September 2002
              : 92
              : 3
              : 601-604
              Affiliations
              Nephrology Unit, Manda Memorial Hospital Diabetes Center, Sapporo, Japan
              Article
              64087 Nephron 2002;92:601–604
              10.1159/000064087
              12372943
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 11, Pages: 4
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              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/64087
              Categories
              Original Paper

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