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      Integrative ecological and molecular analysis indicate high diversity and strict elevational separation of canopy beetles in tropical mountain forests

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          Abstract

          Tropical mountain forests contribute disproportionately to terrestrial biodiversity but little is known about insect diversity in the canopy and how it is distributed between tree species. We sampled tree-specific arthropod communities from 28 trees by canopy fogging and analysed beetle communities which were first morphotyped and then identified by their DNA barcodes. Our results show that communities from forests at 1100 and 1700 m a.s.l. are almost completely distinct. Diversity was much lower in the upper forest while community structure changed from many rare, less abundant species to communities with a pronounced dominance structure. We also found significantly higher beta-diversity between trees at the lower than higher elevation forest where community similarity was high. Comparisons on tree species found at both elevations reinforced these results. There was little species overlap between sites indicating limited elevational ranges. Furthermore, we exploited the advantage of DNA barcodes to patterns of haplotype diversity in some of the commoner species. Our results support the advantage of fogging and DNA barcodes for community studies and underline the need for comprehensive research aimed at the preservation of these last remaining pristine forests.

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          Agricultural expansion and its impacts on tropical nature.

          The human population is projected to reach 11 billion this century, with the greatest increases in tropical developing nations. This growth, in concert with rising per-capita consumption, will require large increases in food and biofuel production. How will these megatrends affect tropical terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity? We foresee (i) major expansion and intensification of tropical agriculture, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South America; (ii) continuing rapid loss and alteration of tropical old-growth forests, woodlands, and semi-arid environments; (iii) a pivotal role for new roadways in determining the spatial extent of agriculture; and (iv) intensified conflicts between food production and nature conservation. Key priorities are to improve technologies and policies that promote more ecologically efficient food production while optimizing the allocation of lands to conservation and agriculture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            How Should Beta-Diversity Inform Biodiversity Conservation?

            To design robust protected area networks, accurately measure species losses, or understand the processes that maintain species diversity, conservation science must consider the organization of biodiversity in space. Central is beta-diversity--the component of regional diversity that accumulates from compositional differences between local species assemblages. We review how beta-diversity is impacted by human activities, including farming, selective logging, urbanization, species invasions, overhunting, and climate change. Beta-diversity increases, decreases, or remains unchanged by these impacts, depending on the balance of processes that cause species composition to become more different (biotic heterogenization) or more similar (biotic homogenization) between sites. While maintaining high beta-diversity is not always a desirable conservation outcome, understanding beta-diversity is essential for protecting regional diversity and can directly assist conservation planning.
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              Are mountain passes higher in the tropics? Janzen's hypothesis revisited.

              Synopsis In 1967 Daniel Janzen published an influential paper titled "Why Mountain Passes Are Higher in the Tropics." Janzen derived a simple climatic-physiological model predicting that tropical mountain passes would be more effective barriers to organismal dispersal than would temperate-zone passes of equivalent altitude. This prediction derived from a recognition that the annual variation in ambient temperature at any site is relatively low in the tropics. Such low variation within sites not only reduces the seasonal overlap in thermal regimes between low- and high-altitude sites, but should also select for organisms with narrow physiological tolerances to temperature. As a result, Janzen predicted that tropical lowland organisms are more likely to encounter a mountain pass as a physiological barrier to dispersal (hence "higher"), which should in turn favor smaller distributions and an increase in species turnover along altitudinal gradients. This synthetic hypothesis has long been at the center of discussions of latitudinal patterns of physiological adaptation and of species diversity. Here we review some of the key assumptions and predictions of Janzen's hypothesis. We find general support for many assumptions and predictions, but call attention to several issues that somewhat ameliorate the generality of Janzen's classic hypothesis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                floren@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                7 October 2020
                7 October 2020
                2020
                : 10
                : 16677
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.8379.5, ISNI 0000 0001 1958 8658, Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology, Biocenter, , University of Würzburg, ; Hans-Martin-Weg 5, 97074 Würzburg, Germany
                [2 ]GRID grid.452282.b, ISNI 0000 0001 1013 3702, Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, ; Münchhausenstr. 21, 81247 Munich, Germany
                [3 ]GRID grid.422371.1, ISNI 0000 0001 2293 9957, Museum für Naturkunde-Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, ; Invalidenstraße 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany
                [4 ]GRID grid.34429.38, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8198, Centre for Biodiversity Genomics, , University of Guelph, ; Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 Canada
                [5 ]GRID grid.249566.a, ISNI 0000 0004 0644 6054, Zoology Division (Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense), Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, ; Jl. Raya Jakarta-Bogor KM 46, Cibinong, Bogor 16911 Indonesia
                [6 ]Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe, Erbprinzenstr. 13, 76133 Karlsruhe, Germany
                [7 ]GRID grid.8379.5, ISNI 0000 0001 1958 8658, Department of Bioinformatics, Biocenter, , University of Würzburg, ; Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5751-8706
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3087-6172
                Article
                73519
                10.1038/s41598-020-73519-w
                7541450
                447c8f10-a47c-41dc-9856-d7aa1577097b
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 16 November 2018
                : 16 September 2020
                Funding
                Funded by: Museum für Naturkunde – Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Invalidenstraße 43, D-10115 Berlin, Germany
                Funded by: Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, Münchhausenstr. 21, D-81247 Munich, Germany
                Funded by: Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, Münchhausenstr. 21, D-81247 Munich, Germany
                Funded by: Museum für Naturkunde – Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Invalidenstraße 43, D-10115 Berlin, Germany
                Funded by: Projekt DEAL
                Categories
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                Uncategorized
                ecosystem ecology
                Uncategorized
                ecosystem ecology

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