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      TGF-β1 Induces Aberrant Laminin Chain and Collagen Type IV Isotype Expression in the Glomerular Basement Membrane

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          Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) contributes to the thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) therein and expansion of the mesangial matrix (MM) in several glomerular kidney diseases. However, the influence of TGF-β1 on the expression of collagen IV isotypes and laminin chains in the GBM and the MM in vivo is not known in detail. By using transgenic mice with TGF-β1 expression targeted to the juxtaglomerular apparatus and a combination of immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, immunoelectron microscopy and in situ hybridization, we investigated the contribution of different laminin chains and collagen type IV isotypes to the basement membrane thickening and mesangial expansion. We report that exposure of the glomerulus to TGF-β1 in vivo induces aberrant deposition of fetal laminin α1, α2 and β1 chains and collagen type IVα1/α2 in the GBM. On the other hand, the TGF-β1-mediated expansion of the mesangial ECM is dominated by the normal components. We found that the cellular origin of at least laminin α1 and α2 chains may be the glomerular endothelial cells. We speculate that the endothelial cells could contribute to TGF-β1-induced glomerulopathy and should be considered as target cells for early intervention in glomerular diseases associated with TGF-β1 in man.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Molecular basis of renal fibrosis.

           James A. Eddy (2000)
          All progressive renal diseases are the consequence of a process of destructive fibrosis. This review will focus on tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the pathophysiology of which will be divided into four arbitrary phases. First is the cellular activation and injury phase. The tubules are activated, the peritubular capillary endothelium facilitates migration of mononuclear cells into the interstitium where they mature into macrophages, and myofibroblasts/activated fibroblasts begin to populate the interstitium. Each of these cells releases soluble products that contribute to ongoing inflammation and ultimately fibrosis. The second phase, the fibrogenic signaling phase, is characterized by the release of soluble factors that have fibrosis-promoting effects. Several growth factors and cytokines have been implicated, with primary roles suggested for transforming growth factor-beta, connective tissue growth factor, angiotensin II and endothelin-1. Additional factors may participate including platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1, while interferon-gamma and hepatocyte growth factor may elicit antifibrotic responses. Third is the fibrogenic phase when matrix proteins, both normal and novel to the renal interstitium, begin to accumulate. During this time both increased matrix protein synthesis and impaired matrix turnover are evident. The latter is due to the renal production of protease inhibitors such as the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and plasminogen activator inhibitors which inactivate the renal proteases that normally regulate matrix turnover. Fourth is the phase of renal destruction, the ultimate sequel to excessive matrix accumulation. During this time the tubules and peritubular capillaries are obliterated. The number of intact nephrons progressively declines resulting in a continuous reduction in glomerular filtration.
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            The Laminin α Chains: Expression, Developmental Transitions, and Chromosomal Locations of α1-5, Identification of Heterotrimeric Laminins 8–11, and Cloning of a Novel α3 Isoform

            Laminin trimers composed of α, β, and γ chains are major components of basal laminae (BLs) throughout the body. To date, three α chains (α1–3) have been shown to assemble into at least seven heterotrimers (called laminins 1–7). Genes encoding two additional α chains (α4 and α5) have been cloned, but little is known about their expression, and their protein products have not been identified. Here we generated antisera to recombinant α4 and α5 and used them to identify authentic proteins in tissue extracts. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting showed that α4 and α5 assemble into four novel laminin heterotrimers (laminins 8–11: α4β1γ1, α4β2γ1, α5β1γ1, and α5β2γ1, respectively). Using a panel of nucleotide and antibody probes, we surveyed the expression of α1-5 in murine tissues. All five chains were expressed in both embryos and adults, but each was distributed in a distinct pattern at both RNA and protein levels. Overall, α4 and α5 exhibited the broadest patterns of expression, while expression of α1 was the most restricted. Immunohistochemical analysis of kidney, lung, and heart showed that the α chains were confined to extracellular matrix and, with few exceptions, to BLs. All developing and adult BLs examined contained at least one α chain, all α chains were present in multiple BLs, and some BLs contained two or three α chains. Detailed analysis of developing kidney revealed that some individual BLs, including those of the tubule and glomerulus, changed in laminin chain composition as they matured, expressing up to three different α chains and two different β chains in an elaborate and dynamic progression. Interspecific backcross mapping of the five α chain genes revealed that they are distributed on four mouse chromosomes. Finally, we identified a novel full-length α3 isoform encoded by the Lama3 gene, which was previously believed to encode only truncated chains. Together, these results reveal remarkable diversity in BL composition and complexity in BL development.
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              Collagen IV alpha 3, alpha 4, and alpha 5 chains in rodent basal laminae: sequence, distribution, association with laminins, and developmental switches

               JR Sanes,  JH Miner (1994)
              Collagen IV is a major component of vertebrate basal laminae (BLs). Studies in humans have revealed a family of genes encoding alpha 1- alpha 6 collagen IV chains and implicated alpha 3-alpha 6 in disease processes (Goodpasture and Alport syndromes and diffuse leiomyomatosis). To extend studies of these components to an experimentally accessible animal, we cloned cDNAs encoding partial collagen alpha 3, alpha 4, and alpha 5(IV) chains from the mouse. Ribonuclease protection assays showed that all three genes were expressed at highest levels in kidney and lung; alpha 5(IV) was also expressed at high levels in heart. We then made antibodies specific for each collagen IV chain. Immunohistochemical studies of several tissues revealed many combinations of collagen IV chains; however, alpha 3 and alpha 4 (IV) were always coexpressed, and only appeared in BLs that were alpha 5(IV) positive. The alpha 3-alpha 5(IV) chains were frequently but not exclusively associated with the S (beta 2) chain of laminin, as were the alpha 1, 2 (IV) collagen chains with laminin B1 (beta 1). An analysis of developing rat kidney BLs showed that newly formed (S-shaped) nephrons harbored collagen alpha 1 and alpha 2(IV) and laminin B1; maturing (capillary loop stage) BLs contained collagen alpha 1-alpha 5(IV) and laminin B1 and S-laminin; and mature glomerular BLs contained mainly collagen alpha 3-alpha 5(IV) and S-laminin. Thus, collagen alpha 1 and alpha 2(IV) and laminin B1 appear to be fetal components of the glomerular BL, and there is a developmental switch to collagen alpha 3-alpha 5(IV) and S-laminin expression.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                August 2003
                17 November 2004
                : 94
                : 4
                : e123-e136
                aResearch Laboratory for Biochemical Pathology and bElectron Microscopy and Stereological Research Laboratory, Institute for Experimental Clinical Research, Aarhus Kommunehospital, Aarhus, Denmark; cRenal Division and Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washingtonn University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo., USA
                72496 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2003;94:e123–e136
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 8, References: 46, Pages: 1
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