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      Chronic exposure to cannabidiol induces reproductive toxicity in male Swiss mice : MALE REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF CBD

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          Most cited references 32

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          Cannabis and anxiety: a critical review of the evidence.

          Anxiety reactions and panic attacks are the acute symptoms most frequently associated with cannabis use. Understanding the relationship between cannabis and anxiety may clarify the mechanism of action of cannabis and the pathophysiology of anxiety. Aims of the present study were to review the nature of the relationship between cannabis use and anxiety, as well as the possible clinical, diagnostic and causal implications. Systematic review of the Medline, PsycLIT and EMBASE literature. Frequent cannabis users consistently have a high prevalence of anxiety disorders and patients with anxiety disorders have relatively high rates of cannabis use. However, it is unclear if cannabis use increases the risk of developing long-lasting anxiety disorders. Many hypotheses have been proposed in an attempt to explain these relationships, including neurobiological, environmental and social influences. The precise relationship between cannabis use and anxiety has yet to be established. Research is needed to fully clarify the mechanisms of such the association.
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            Measurement of total serum testosterone in adult men: comparison of current laboratory methods versus liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

            The diagnosis of male hypogonadism requires the demonstration of a low serum testosterone (T) level. We examined serum T levels in pedigreed samples taken from 62 eugonadal and 60 hypogonadal males by four commonly used automated immunoassay instruments (Roche Elecsys, Bayer Centaur, Ortho Vitros ECi and DPC Immulite 2000) and two manual immunoassay methods (DPC-RIA, a coated tube commercial kit, and HUMC-RIA, a research laboratory assay) and compared results with measurements performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS). Deming's regression analyses comparing each of the test results with LC-MSMS showed slopes that were between 0.881 and 1.217. The interclass correlation coefficients were between 0.92 and 0.97 for all methods. Compared with the serum T concentrations measured by LC-MSMS, the DPC Immulite results were biased toward lower values (mean difference, -90 +/- 9 ng/dl) whereas the Bayer Centaur data were biased toward higher values (mean difference, +99 +/- 11 ng/dl) over a wide range of serum T levels. At low serum T concentrations (<100 ng/dl or 3.47 nmol/liter), HUMC-RIA overestimated serum T, Ortho Vitros ECi underestimated the serum T concentration, whereas the other two methods (DPC-RIA and Roche Elecsys) showed differences in both directions compared with LC-MSMS. Over 60% of the samples (with T levels within the adult male range) measured by most automated and manual methods were within +/- 20% of those reported by LC-MSMS. These immunoassays are capable of distinguishing eugonadal from hypogonadal males if adult male reference ranges have been established in each individual laboratory. The lack of precision and accuracy, together with bias of the immunoassay methods at low serum T concentrations, suggests that the current methods cannot be used to accurately measure T in females or serum from prepubertal subjects.
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              Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive-compulsive behaviour.

              Phytocannabinoids are useful therapeutics for multiple applications including treatments of constipation, malaria, rheumatism, alleviation of intraocular pressure, emesis, anxiety and some neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Consistent with these medicinal properties, extracted cannabinoids have recently gained much interest in research, and some are currently in advanced stages of clinical testing. Other constituents of Cannabis sativa, the hemp plant, however, remain relatively unexplored in vivo. These include cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ(9)-THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG). We here determined pharmacokinetic profiles of the above phytocannabinoids after acute single-dose intraperitoneal and oral administration in mice and rats. The pharmacodynamic-pharmacokinetic relationship of CBD (120 mg/kg, ip and oral) was further assessed using a marble burying test in mice. All phytocannabinoids readily penetrated the blood-brain barrier and solutol, despite producing moderate behavioural anomalies, led to higher brain penetration than cremophor after oral, but not intraperitoneal exposure. In mice, cremophor-based intraperitoneal administration always attained higher plasma and brain concentrations, independent of substance given. In rats, oral administration offered higher brain concentrations for CBD (120 mg/kg) and CBDV (60 mg/kg), but not for Δ(9)-THCV (30 mg/kg) and CBG (120 mg/kg), for which the intraperitoneal route was more effective. CBD inhibited obsessive-compulsive behaviour in a time-dependent manner matching its pharmacokinetic profile. These data provide important information on the brain and plasma exposure of new phytocannabinoids and guidance for the most efficacious administration route and time points for determination of drug effects under in vivo conditions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Applied Toxicology
                J Appl Toxicol
                Wiley
                0260437X
                September 2018
                September 2018
                May 16 2018
                : 38
                : 9
                : 1215-1223
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology, Laboratory of Physiology and Pharmacology of Reproduction; Universidade Federal de Goiás; Goiânia GO Brazil
                [2 ]Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health; Universidade Federal de Goiás; Goiânia GO Brazil
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School; Universidade de São Paulo; Ribeirão Preto SP Brazil
                [4 ]Department of Morphology, Stomatology and Physiology, Dental School of Ribeirão Preto; Universidade de São Paulo; Ribeirão Preto SP Brazil
                Article
                10.1002/jat.3631
                © 2018

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