This study presents an explosion-resistant hybrid system containing a steel slab and a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) frame. CFRP, which is a high-strength material, acts as an impact reflection part. Steel slab, which is a high-ductility material, plays a role as an impact energy absorption part. Based on the elastoplastic behavior of steel, a numerical model is proposed to simulate the dynamic responses of the hybrid system under the air pressure from an explosion. Based on this, a case study is conducted to analyze and identify the optimal design of the proposed hybrid system, which is subjected to an impact load condition. The observations from the case study show the optimal thicknesses of 8.2 and 7 mm for a steel slab and a ϕ100 mm CFRP pipe for the hybrid system, respectively. In addition, the ability of the proposed hybrid system to resist an uncertain explosion is demonstrated in the case study based on the reliability methodology.