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      Regulation of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 activity by dynamin-mediated endocytosis

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          Abstract

          Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) plays a critical role in extracellular matrix remodeling under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms controlling its activity on the cell surface remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that MT1-MMP is regulated by endocytosis. First, we determined that Con A induces proMMP-2 activation in HT1080 cells by shifting endogenous MT1-MMP from intracellular compartments to cell surface. This phenotype was mimicked by the cytoplasmic truncation mutant MT1 Delta C with more robust pro-MMP-2 activation and cell surface expression than wild-type MT1-MMP in transfected cells. MT1 Delta C was subsequently shown to be resistant to Con A treatment whereas MT1-MMP remains competent, suggesting that Con A regulates MT1-MMP activity through cytoplasmic domain-dependent trafficking. Indeed, MT1-MMP was colocalized with clathrin on the plasma membrane and with endosomal antigen 1 in endosomes. Internalization experiments revealed that MT1-MMP is internalized rapidly in clathrin-coated vesicles whereas MT1 Delta C remains on cell surface. Coexpression of a dominant negative mutant of dynamin, K44A, resulted in elevation of MT1-MMP activity by interfering with the endocytic process. Thus, MT1-MMP is regulated by dynamin-dependent endocytosis in clathrin-coated pits through its cytoplasmic domain.

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          Most cited references 40

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          A matrix metalloproteinase expressed on the surface of invasive tumour cells.

          Gelatinase A (type-IV collagenase; M(r) 72,000) is produced by tumour stroma cells and is believed to be crucial for their invasion and metastasis, acting by degrading extracellular matrix macro-molecules such as type IV collagen. An inactive precursor of gelatinase A (pro-gelatinase A) is secreted and activated in invasive tumour tissue as a result of proteolysis which is mediated by a fraction of tumour cell membrane that is sensitive to metalloproteinase inhibitors. Here we report the cloning of the complementary DNA encoding a new matrix metalloproteinase with a potential transmembrane domain. Expression of the gene product on the cell surface induces specific activation of pro-gelatinase A in vitro and enhances cellular invasion of the reconstituted basement membrane. Tumour cells of invasive lung carcinomas, which contain activated forms of gelatinase A, were found to express the transcript and the gene product. The new metalloproteinase may thus trigger invasion by tumour cells by activating pro-gelatinase A on the tumour cell surface.
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            MT1-MMP-deficient mice develop dwarfism, osteopenia, arthritis, and connective tissue disease due to inadequate collagen turnover.

            MT1-MMP is a membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase (MT-MMP) capable of mediating pericellular proteolysis of extracellular matrix components. MT1-MMP is therefore thought to be an important molecular tool for cellular remodeling of the surrounding matrix. To establish the biological role of this membrane proteinase we generated MT1-MMP-deficient mice by gene targeting. MT1-MMP deficiency causes craniofacial dysmorphism, arthritis, osteopenia, dwarfism, and fibrosis of soft tissues due to ablation of a collagenolytic activity that is essential for modeling of skeletal and extraskeletal connective tissues. Our findings demonstrate the pivotal function of MT1-MMP in connective tissue metabolism, and illustrate that modeling of the soft connective tissue matrix by resident cells is essential for the development and maintenance of the hard tissues of the skeleton.
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              ECM and cell surface proteolysis: regulating cellular ecology.

               Z Werb (1997)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                November 20 2001
                November 06 2001
                November 20 2001
                : 98
                : 24
                : 13693-13698
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.241293698
                61103
                11698655
                449334a2-a094-4f9f-a4a1-f86b8997a3e0
                © 2001
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