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Hormônios sexuais estrógenos: contaminantes bioativos Translated title: Sexual estrogenic hormones: bioactive contaminants

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      Translated abstract

      Natural and synthetic estrogens have been detected in rivers, lakes and estuaries in several parts of the world. The primary sources of these compounds are the industrial and household effluents, which are not eliminated by the received treatment. This paper presents a brief description of the problem as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of the main compounds, the environmental behavior, methods of determination, ecotoxicological aspects and a discussion about its relevance in terms of ecology and public health.

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      Analytical Chemistry

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        Significance of Chloroflexi in performance of submerged membrane bioreactors (MBR) treating municipal wastewater.

        We operated pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactors (MBR) treating real municipal wastewater for over 3 months and observed an interesting phenomenon that carbohydrate concentrations in the MBRs rapidly increased, which consequently resulted in membrane fouling, when relative abundance of the member of uncultured Chloroflexi decreased from over 30% of total Bacteria to less than 10%. We, therefore, hypothesized that the uncultured Chloroflexi present in the MBRs could preferentially degrade carbohydrates and consequently prevent membrane fouling. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the phylogenetic identity, diversity, and in situ physiology (substrate utilization characteristics) of Chloroflexi residing in the MBR by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and microautoradiography combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) technique. Most of the clones related to the phylum Chloroflexiwere affiliated with the Chloroflexi subphylum 1 containing only a few cultured representatives. The MAR-FISH revealed that the members of Chloroflexi were metabolically versatile and could preferentially utilize glucose and N-acetyl glucosamine (a main substantial constituent of the cell wall peptidoglycan) under oxic and anoxic conditions. The utilization of these compounds was low at low pH. These findings suggest that the members of Chloroflexi are ecologically significant in the MBR treating municipal wastewater and are responsible for degradation of SMP including carbohydrates and cellular materials, which consequently reduces membrane fouling potential.
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          Extração em Fase Sólida (SPE)

           F Lancas,  F.M. Lancas (2004)
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
            [2 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            qn
            Química Nova
            Quím. Nova
            Sociedade Brasileira de Química (São Paulo )
            1678-7064
            July 2006
            : 29
            : 4
            : 817-822
            S0100-40422006000400032 10.1590/S0100-40422006000400032

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Brazil
            Categories
            CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY

            General chemistry

            environmental chemistry, endocrine disrupters, hormones

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