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      Depth-Dependent Corneal Biomechanical Properties in Normal and Keratoconic Subjects by Optical Coherence Elastography

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Compare depth-resolved biomechanical properties in normal and keratoconic corneas in live human subjects using optical coherence elastography (OCE).

          Methods

          In a prospective series of normal and keratoconus (KC) eyes, a corneal perturbation was applied by a custom swept-source OCE system using a transparent flat lens coupled to force transducers. Cross-correlation was applied to track frame-by-frame OCT speckle displacement. Regional displacements for the anterior and posterior stroma were plotted in force versus displacement ( k) graphs. A spatial biomechanical property ratio ( k a/k p ) was defined by dividing the maximum total displacement by the maximum force for the anterior ( k a ) and posterior cornea ( k p) and was compared between normal and KC groups with the Mann-Whitney U test. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) for differentiating normal and KC eyes was calculated for k a/k p , k max, and thinnest point of corneal thickness (TPCT).

          Results

          Thirty-six eyes were analyzed (21 eyes of 12 normal subjects and 15 KC eyes of 12 subjects). The k a/k p for the normal group was 1.135 ± 0.07 (mean ± standard deviation) and 1.02 ± 0.08 for the KC group ( P < 0.001), indicating a relative deficit in anterior stromal stiffness in KC eyes. AUROC was 0.91 for k a / k p , 0.95 for k max, and 1 for TPCT.

          Conclusions

          Significant differences in depth-dependent corneal biomechanical properties were observed between normal and KC subjects.

          Translational Relevance

          OCE was applied for the first time to human KC subjects and revealed alterations in the normal anterior-to-posterior stromal stiffness gradient, a novel and clinically accessible disease biomarker.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues.

           J Ophir (1991)
          We describe a new method for quantitative imaging of strain and elastic modulus distributions in soft tissues. The method is based on external tissue compression, with subsequent computation of the strain profile along the transducer axis, which is derived from cross-correlation analysis of pre- and post-compression A-line pairs. The strain profile can then be converted to an elastic modulus profile by measuring the stresses applied by the compressing device and applying certain corrections for the nonuniform stress field. We report initial results of several phantom and excised animal tissue experiments which demonstrate the ability of this technique to quantitatively image strain and elastic modulus distributions with good resolution, sensitivity and with diminished speckle. We discuss several potential clinical uses of this technique.
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            Determining in vivo biomechanical properties of the cornea with an ocular response analyzer.

             D Luce (2004)
            To study the results of an ocular response analyzer (ORA) to determine the biomechanical properties of the cornea and their relationship to intraocular pressure (IOP). Reichert Inc., Depew, New York, USA. The ORA (Reichert) makes 2 essentially instantaneous applanation measurements that permit determination of corneal and IOP effects. Measurements of several populations indicate that corneal hysteresis, a biomechanical measure, varied over a dynamic range of 1.8 to 14.6 mm Hg and was only weakly correlated with corneal thickness (r(2)=0.12); this is related to the observation that some subjects with relatively thick corneas have less-than-average corneal hysteresis. Corneal hysteresis changes diurnally, presumably as a result of hydration changes. Keratoconus, Fuchs' dystrophy, and post-LASIK patients demonstrated low corneal hysteresis. The corneal hysteresis biomechanical measure may prove valuable for qualification and predictions of outcomes of refractive surgery and in other cases in which corneal biomechanics are important.
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              Global consensus on keratoconus and ectatic diseases.

              Despite extensive knowledge regarding the diagnosis and management of keratoconus and ectatic corneal diseases, many controversies still exist. For that reason, there is a need for current guidelines for the diagnosis and management of these conditions. This project aimed to reach consensus of ophthalmology experts from around the world regarding keratoconus and ectatic diseases, focusing on their definition, concepts, clinical management, and surgical treatments. The Delphi method was followed with 3 questionnaire rounds and was complemented with a face-to-face meeting. Thirty-six panelists were involved and allocated to 1 of 3 panels: definition/diagnosis, nonsurgical management, or surgical treatment. The level of agreement considered for consensus was two thirds. Numerous agreements were generated in definitions, methods of diagnosing, and management of keratoconus and other ectatic diseases. Nonsurgical and surgical treatments for these conditions, including the use of corneal cross-linking and corneal transplantations, were presented in a stepwise approach. A flowchart describing a logical management sequence for keratoconus was created. This project resulted in definitions, statements, and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of keratoconus and other ectatic diseases. It also provides an insight into the current worldwide treatment of these conditions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Transl Vis Sci Technol
                Transl Vis Sci Technol
                tvst
                TVST
                Translational Vision Science & Technology
                The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
                2164-2591
                03 June 2020
                June 2020
                : 9
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA
                [2 ]Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
                [3 ]Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA
                [4 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: William J. Dupps, Jr., Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Ave, i-32, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA. e-mail: bjdupps@ 123456outlook.com
                Article
                TVST-20-2227
                10.1167/tvst.9.7.4
                7414661
                Copyright 2020 The Authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Pages: 10
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