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      Combined effects of hyperglycemic conditions and HIV-1 Nef: a potential model for induced HIV neuropathogenesis

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          Abstract

          Hyperglycemic conditions associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) or with the use of antiretroviral therapy may increase the risk of central nervous system (CNS) disorders in HIV-1 infected patients. In support of this hypothesis, we investigated the combined effects of hyperglycemic conditions and HIV-1 accessory protein Nef on the CNS using both in vitro and in vivo models. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cell type required for normal synaptic transmission and other functions were selected for our in vitro study. The results show that in vitro hyperglycemic conditions enhance the expression of proinflammatory cytokines including caspase-3, complement factor 3 (C3), and the production of total nitrate and 8-iso-PGF2 α as reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human astrocytes leading to cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Delivery of purified recombinant HIV-1 Nef protein, or Nef expressed via HIV-1-based vectors in astrocytes showed similar results. The expression of Nef protein delivered via HIV-1 vectors in combination with hyperglycemia further augmented the production of ROS, C3, activation of caspase-3, modulation of filamentous protein (F-protein), depolarization of the mitochondria, and loss of astrocytes. To further verify the effects of hyperglycemia and HIV-1 Nef protein on CNS individually or in combination, in vivo studies were performed in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice, by injecting HIV-1 Nef expressing viral particles into the sub-cortical region of the brain. Our in vivo results were similar to in vitro findings indicating an enhanced production of caspases-3, ROS (lipid oxidation and total nitrate), and C3 in the brain tissues of these animals. Interestingly, the delivery of HIV-1 Nef protein alone caused similar damage to CNS as augmented by hyperglycemia conditions. Taken together, the data suggests that HIV-1 infected individuals with hyperglycemia could potentially be at a higher risk of developing CNS related complications.

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          Most cited references 60

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          In vivo gene delivery and stable transduction of nondividing cells by a lentiviral vector.

           D Trono,  I Verma,  L Naldini (1996)
          A retroviral vector system based on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was developed that, in contrast to a murine leukemia virus-based counterpart, transduced heterologous sequences into HeLa cells and rat fibroblasts blocked in the cell cycle, as well as into human primary macrophages. Additionally, the HIV vector could mediate stable in vivo gene transfer into terminally differentiated neurons. The ability of HIV-based viral vectors to deliver genes in vivo into nondividing cells could increase the applicability of retroviral vectors in human gene therapy.
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            Cell-autonomous Fas (CD95)/Fas-ligand interaction mediates activation-induced apoptosis in T-cell hybridomas.

            A number of murine T-cell hybridomas undergo apoptosis within a few hours of activation by specific antigens, mitogens, antibodies against the T-cell antigen receptor, or a combination of phorbol ester and calcium ionophore. This phenomenon has been extensively studied as a model for clonal deletion in the immune system, in which potentially autoreactive T cells eliminate themselves by apoptosis after activation, either in the thymus or in the periphery. Here we show that the Fas/CD95 receptor, which can transduce a potent apoptotic signal when ligand, is rapidly expressed following activation of T-cell hybridomas, as is its functional, membrane-bound ligand. Interference with the ensuing Fas/Fas-ligand interaction inhibits activation-induced apoptosis. Because T-cell receptor ligation can induce apoptosis in a single T hybridoma cell, we suggest that the Fas/Fas-ligand interaction can induce cell death in a cell-autonomous manner.
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              HIV-1 Nef inhibits ASK1-dependent death signalling providing a potential mechanism for protecting the infected host cell.

               W Xu,  H Ichijo,  K Takeda (2001)
              In vivo infection of lymphatic tissues by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) leads to enhanced apoptosis, which prominently involves uninfected bystander cells. Increased killing of such bystander cells is mediated in part through Nef induction of Fas ligand (FasL) expression on the surface of the virally infected T cells. The subsequent interaction of FasL with Fas (CD95) displayed on neighbouring cells, including HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, may lead to bystander cell killing and thus forms an important mechanism of immune evasion. As HIV-1 also enhances Fas expression on virally infected cells, it is unclear how these hosts avoid rapid cell-autonomous apoptosis mediated through cis ligation of Fas by FasL. Here we show that HIV-1 Nef associates with and inhibits apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), a serine/threonine kinase that forms a common and key signalling intermediate in the Fas and tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) death-signalling pathways. The interaction of Nef with ASK1 inhibits both Fas- and TNFalpha-mediated apoptosis, as well as the activation of the downstream c-Jun amino-terminal kinase. Our findings reveal a strategy by which HIV-1 Nef promotes the killing of bystander cells through the induction of FasL, while simultaneously protecting the HIV-1-infected host cell from these same pro-apoptotic signals through its interference with ASK1 function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Virol J
                Virology Journal
                BioMed Central
                1743-422X
                2009
                30 October 2009
                : 6
                : 183
                1743-422X-6-183
                10.1186/1743-422X-6-183
                2778648
                19878567
                Copyright ©2009 Acheampong et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research

                Microbiology & Virology

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