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      EVALUATION OF A GREEN ROOF RETROFIT USING WATER TREATMENT RESIDUALS TO REDUCE LEACHING OF PHOSPHORUS

      research-article
      , PhD, PE 1* , , ,
      Journal of Green Building
      College Publishing
      stormwater, phosphorus, green roofs, water treatment residuals

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          ABSTRACT

          Green roofs have become increasingly common in urban areas to slow and reduce stormwater runoff from buildings. However, phosphorus has been found to leach from green roofs. Water treatment residuals (WTRs), a waste product in the water treatment process, may help reduce leaching of phosphorus from green roofs. This study evaluated a green roof retrofit that consisted of a WTR filter at the green roof drain to reduce phosphorus in runoff. Samples of rainfall, runoff from a green roof, and runoff from a regular roof were collected every time it rained and analyzed for total phosphorus (TP), phosphate (PO 4 3−), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Samples were taken January–March 2020 and September 2020–March 2021. Phosphate and TP concentrations were significantly lower (p<0.05) with the retrofit during the winter (Jan–March 2020 and 2021) but not during the fall (Sept–December 2020). The change in WTR efficacy may be due to the WTRs drying out during the summer months, although it appears the WTRs are effective once they have been resaturated during the fall wetting period. This study shows that the WTR retrofit may reduce phosphorus leaching as long as the WTRs do not dry out. The WTRs should be replaced each fall in regions that experience dry summer months to maximize efficacy.

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          Most cited references25

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          Effect of a modular extensive green roof on stormwater runoff and water quality

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            The influence of extensive vegetated roofs on runoff water quality.

            The influence of extensive sedum-moss vegetated roofs on runoff water quality was studied for four full scale installations located in southern Sweden. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether the vegetated roof behaves as a sink or a source of pollutants and whether the age of a vegetated roof influences runoff quality. The runoff quality from vegetated roofs was also compared with the runoff quality from non-vegetated roofs located in study areas. The following metals and nutrients were investigated: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, Zn, NO3-N, NH4-N, Tot-N, PO4-P, and Tot-P. The results show that, with the exception of nitrogen, vegetated roofs behave as source of contaminants. While in lower concentrations than normally found in urban runoff, some metals appear in concentrations that would correspond to moderately polluted natural water. Nitrate nitrogen is retained by the vegetation or soil or both. Apart from the oldest, the studied vegetated roofs contribute phosphate phosphorus to the runoff. The maintenance of the vegetation systems on the roofs has to be carefully designed in order to avoid storm-water contamination; for instance, the use of easily dissolvable fertilizers should be avoided.
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              Is Open Access

              A comprehensive study of green roof performance from environmental perspective

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jgrb
                Journal of Green Building
                College Publishing
                1943-4618
                1552-6100
                Summer 2022
                10 October 2022
                : 17
                : 3
                : 129-139
                Author notes
                [2.]

                Research Assistant, University of Portland, Shiley School of Engineering, 5000 N. Willamette Blvd. Portland, OR 97203. Email: kanno21@ 123456up.edu

                [3.]

                Research Assistant, University of Portland, Shiley School of Engineering, 5000 N. Willamette Blvd. Portland, OR 97203. Email: marumoto20@ 123456up.edu

                1. Associate Professor, University of Portland, Shiley School of Engineering, 5000 N. Willamette Blvd. Portland, OR 97203. Email: poor@ 123456up.edu (corresponding author)
                Article
                jgb.17.3.129
                10.3992/jgb.17.3.129
                44a52334-19ad-4d15-8f43-5cd043e1e4ce
                History
                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Categories
                RESEARCH ARTICLES

                Urban design & Planning,Civil engineering,Environmental management, Policy & Planning,Architecture,Environmental engineering
                green roofs,stormwater,water treatment residuals,phosphorus

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