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      Kawasaki Disease: an Update

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          Abstract

          Purpose of Review

          Provide the most recent updates on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment advances in Kawasaki disease.

          Recent Findings

          Treatment advances in complex, IVIG-refractory cases of Kawasaki disease. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome, a newly reported inflammatory condition with Kawasaki-like features and an association with the 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19).

          Summary

          Kawasaki disease (KD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disease that predominately affects children less than 5 years of age. Pathogenesis of KD remains unknown; the leading theory is that an unknown stimulus triggers an immune-mediated inflammatory cascade in a genetically susceptible child. Classic KD is a clinical diagnosis based on set criteria and excluding other similar clinical entities. Patients who do not fulfill complete diagnostic criteria for KD are often referred to as atypical (or incomplete) KD. The most feared complication of KD is coronary artery abnormality development, and patients with atypical KD are also at risk. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and aspirin has greatly reduced the incidence of coronary lesions in affected children. Several other immune-modulating therapies have recently been utilized in complex or refractory cases.

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          Most cited references69

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          The NLRP3 inflammasome: molecular activation and regulation to therapeutics

          NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3) is an intracellular sensor that detects a broad range of microbial motifs, endogenous danger signals and environmental irritants, resulting in the formation and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome leads to caspase-1-dependent release of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, as well as to gasdermin D-mediated pyroptotic cell death. Recent studies have revealed new regulators of the NLRP3 inflammasome, including new interacting or regulatory proteins, metabolic pathways and a regulatory mitochondrial hub. In this Review, we present the molecular, cell biological and biochemical basis of NLRP3 activation and regulation, and describe how this mechanistic understanding is leading to potential therapeutics that target the NLRP3 inflammasome.
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            Acute heart failure in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) in the context of global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic

            Background: Cardiac injury and myocarditis have been described in adults with COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is typically minimally symptomatic. We report a series of febrile pediatric patients with acute heart failure potentially associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) as defined by the US Centers for Disease Control. Methods: Over a two-month period contemporary with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in France and Switzerland, we retrospectively collected clinical, biological, therapeutic, and early outcomes data in children who were admitted to pediatric intensive care units in 14 centers for cardiogenic shock, left ventricular dysfunction and severe inflammatory state. Results: Thirty-five children were identified and included in the study. Median age at admission was 10 years (range 2-16 years). Co-morbidities were present in 28% including asthma and overweight. Gastrointestinal symptoms were prominent. Left ventricular ejection fraction was <30% in one third; 80% required inotropic support with 28% treated with ECMO. Inflammation markers were suggestive of cytokine storm (interleukin 6 median 135 pg/mL) and macrophage activation (D-dimer median 5284 ng/mL). Mean brain natriuretic peptide was elevated (5743 pg/mL). Thirty-one/35 (88%) patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR of nasopharyngeal swab or serology. All patients received intravenous immune globulin, with adjunctive steroid therapy used in one third. Left ventricular function was restored in the 25/35 of those discharged from the intensive care unit. No patient died, and all patients treated with ECMO were successfully weaned. Conclusion: Children may experience an acute cardiac decompensation due to severe inflammatory state following SARS-CoV-2 infection (multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children - MIS-C). Treatment with immune globulin appears to be associated with recovery of left ventricular systolic function.
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              Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease: a statement for health professionals from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association.

              Kawasaki disease is an acute self-limited vasculitis of childhood that is characterized by fever, bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis, erythema of the lips and oral mucosa, changes in the extremities, rash, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Coronary artery aneurysms or ectasia develop in approximately 15% to 25% of untreated children and may lead to ischemic heart disease or sudden death. A multidisciplinary committee of experts was convened to revise the American Heart Association recommendations for diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease. The writing group proposes a new algorithm to aid clinicians in deciding which children with fever for > or =5 days and < or =4 classic criteria should undergo echocardiography [correction], receive intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) treatment, or both for Kawasaki disease. The writing group reviews the available data regarding the initial treatment for children with acute Kawasaki disease, as well for those who have persistent or recrudescent fever despite initial therapy with IVIG, including IVIG retreatment and treatment with corticosteroids, tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists, and abciximab. Long-term management of patients with Kawasaki disease is tailored to the degree of coronary involvement; recommendations regarding antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy, physical activity, follow-up assessment, and the appropriate diagnostic procedures to evaluate cardiac disease are classified according to risk strata. Recommendations for the initial evaluation, treatment in the acute phase, and long-term management of patients with Kawasaki disease are intended to assist physicians in understanding the range of acceptable approaches for caring for patients with Kawasaki disease. The ultimate decisions for case management must be made by physicians in light of the particular conditions presented by individual patients.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                erife@lsuhsc.edu
                AGedal@lsuhsc.edu
                Journal
                Curr Rheumatol Rep
                Curr Rheumatol Rep
                Current Rheumatology Reports
                Springer US (New York )
                1523-3774
                1534-6307
                13 September 2020
                2020
                : 22
                : 10
                : 75
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.64337.35, ISNI 0000 0001 0662 7451, Louisiana State University, ; New Orleans, LA USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.279863.1, ISNI 0000 0000 8954 1233, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, , Children’s Hospital and LSU Health Sciences Center, ; 2000 Henry Clay Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70118 USA
                Article
                941
                10.1007/s11926-020-00941-4
                7487199
                32924089
                44a53754-cca2-4b4d-b874-d532f7ccfead
                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                History
                Categories
                Vasculitis (L Espinoza, Section Editor)
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

                Rheumatology
                kawasaki disease,kawasaki review,kawasaki treatment,kawasaki workup,kawasaki differential,kawasaki diagnosis,multi system inflammatory syndrome,kawasaki-like disease

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