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      Distribution and drivers of global mangrove forest change, 1996–2010

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          Abstract

          For the period 1996-2010, we provide the first indication of the drivers behind mangrove land cover and land use change across the (pan-)tropics using time-series Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array-type L-band SAR (PALSAR) data. Multi-temporal radar mosaics were manually interpreted for evidence of loss and gain in forest extent and its associated driver. Mangrove loss as a consequence of human activities was observed across their entire range. Between 1996-2010 12% of the 1168 1°x1° radar mosaic tiles examined contained evidence of mangrove loss, as a consequence of anthropogenic degradation, with this increasing to 38% when combined with evidence of anthropogenic activity prior to 1996. The greatest proportion of loss was observed in Southeast Asia, whereby approximately 50% of the tiles in the region contained evidence of mangrove loss, corresponding to 18.4% of the global mangrove forest tiles. Southeast Asia contained the greatest proportion (33.8%) of global mangrove forest. The primary driver of anthropogenic mangrove loss was found to be the conversion of mangrove to aquaculture/agriculture, although substantial advance of mangroves was also evident in many regions.

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          Most cited references 39

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          High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change.

          Quantification of global forest change has been lacking despite the recognized importance of forest ecosystem services. In this study, Earth observation satellite data were used to map global forest loss (2.3 million square kilometers) and gain (0.8 million square kilometers) from 2000 to 2012 at a spatial resolution of 30 meters. The tropics were the only climate domain to exhibit a trend, with forest loss increasing by 2101 square kilometers per year. Brazil's well-documented reduction in deforestation was offset by increasing forest loss in Indonesia, Malaysia, Paraguay, Bolivia, Zambia, Angola, and elsewhere. Intensive forestry practiced within subtropical forests resulted in the highest rates of forest change globally. Boreal forest loss due largely to fire and forestry was second to that in the tropics in absolute and proportional terms. These results depict a globally consistent and locally relevant record of forest change.
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            The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services

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              Benchmark map of forest carbon stocks in tropical regions across three continents.

              Developing countries are required to produce robust estimates of forest carbon stocks for successful implementation of climate change mitigation policies related to reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD). Here we present a "benchmark" map of biomass carbon stocks over 2.5 billion ha of forests on three continents, encompassing all tropical forests, for the early 2000s, which will be invaluable for REDD assessments at both project and national scales. We mapped the total carbon stock in live biomass (above- and belowground), using a combination of data from 4,079 in situ inventory plots and satellite light detection and ranging (Lidar) samples of forest structure to estimate carbon storage, plus optical and microwave imagery (1-km resolution) to extrapolate over the landscape. The total biomass carbon stock of forests in the study region is estimated to be 247 Gt C, with 193 Gt C stored aboveground and 54 Gt C stored belowground in roots. Forests in Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia accounted for 49%, 25%, and 26% of the total stock, respectively. By analyzing the errors propagated through the estimation process, uncertainty at the pixel level (100 ha) ranged from ± 6% to ± 53%, but was constrained at the typical project (10,000 ha) and national (>1,000,000 ha) scales at ca. ± 5% and ca. ± 1%, respectively. The benchmark map illustrates regional patterns and provides methodologically comparable estimates of carbon stocks for 75 developing countries where previous assessments were either poor or incomplete.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                2017
                8 June 2017
                : 12
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, United States of America
                [2 ]Centre for Ecosystem Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
                [3 ]Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Wales, United Kingdom
                [4 ]Solo Earth Observation (soloEO), Tokyo, Japan
                Kerala Forest Research Institute, INDIA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                • Conceptualization: NT RL PB AH.

                • Formal analysis: NT.

                • Investigation: NT RL.

                • Methodology: NT RL.

                • Validation: NT.

                • Visualization: NT PB AH AR MS.

                • Writing – original draft: NT.

                • Writing – review & editing: RL PB AH AR MS.

                [¤]

                Current address: MS 300-356A, California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, United States of America

                PONE-D-16-42515
                10.1371/journal.pone.0179302
                5464653
                28594908
                © 2017 Thomas et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Counts
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, Pages: 14
                Product
                Funding
                The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Aquatic Environments
                Marine Environments
                Coasts
                Mangrove Swamps
                Earth Sciences
                Marine and Aquatic Sciences
                Aquatic Environments
                Marine Environments
                Coasts
                Mangrove Swamps
                Engineering and Technology
                Remote Sensing
                Radar
                People and Places
                Geographical Locations
                Asia
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Imaging Techniques
                Composite Images
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Aquaculture
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Engineering and Technology
                Environmental Engineering
                Carbon Sequestration
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Custom metadata

                Uncategorized

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