The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (brachial-ankle PWV), which is measured simply by wrapping pressure cuffs around the four extremities, is a simple marker to assess the stiffness of the medium- to large- sized arteries. The accuracy and reproducibility of its measurement have been confirmed to be acceptable. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease, especially advanced age and high blood pressure, are reported to be associated with an increase of the arterial stiffness. Furthermore, arterial stiffness might be involved in a vicious cycle with the development/progression of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. Increase in the arterial stiffness is thought to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease via pathophysiological abnormalities induced in the heart, brain, kidney, and also the arteries themselves. A recent independent participant data meta-analysis conducted in Japan demonstrated that the brachial-ankle PWV is a useful marker to predict future cardiovascular events in Japanese subjects without a previous history of cardiovascular disease, independent of the conventional model for the risk assessment. The cutoff point may be 16.0 m/s in individuals with a low risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and 18.0 m/s in individuals with a high risk of CVD and subjects with hypertension. In addition, the method of measurement of the brachial-ankle PWV can also be used to calculate the inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference and ankle-brachial pressure index, which are also useful markers for cardiovascular risk assessment.