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      State of the Art Review: Brachial-Ankle PWV

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          Abstract

          The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (brachial-ankle PWV), which is measured simply by wrapping pressure cuffs around the four extremities, is a simple marker to assess the stiffness of the medium- to large- sized arteries. The accuracy and reproducibility of its measurement have been confirmed to be acceptable. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease, especially advanced age and high blood pressure, are reported to be associated with an increase of the arterial stiffness. Furthermore, arterial stiffness might be involved in a vicious cycle with the development/progression of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. Increase in the arterial stiffness is thought to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease via pathophysiological abnormalities induced in the heart, brain, kidney, and also the arteries themselves. A recent independent participant data meta-analysis conducted in Japan demonstrated that the brachial-ankle PWV is a useful marker to predict future cardiovascular events in Japanese subjects without a previous history of cardiovascular disease, independent of the conventional model for the risk assessment. The cutoff point may be 16.0 m/s in individuals with a low risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and 18.0 m/s in individuals with a high risk of CVD and subjects with hypertension. In addition, the method of measurement of the brachial-ankle PWV can also be used to calculate the inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference and ankle-brachial pressure index, which are also useful markers for cardiovascular risk assessment.

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          Most cited references 133

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          Validity, reproducibility, and clinical significance of noninvasive brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity measurement.

          The present study was conducted to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of noninvasive brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measurements and to examine the alteration of baPWV in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Simultaneous recordings of baPWV by a simple, noninvasive method and aortic pulse wave velosity (PWV) using a catheter tip with pressure manometer were performed in 41 patients with CAD, vasospastic angina, or cardiomyopathy. In 32 subjects (15 controls and 17 patients with CAD), baPWV was recorded independently by two observers in a random manner. In 55 subjects (14 controls and 41 patients with CAD), baPWV was recorded twice by a single observer on different days. baPWV were compared among 172 patients with CAD (aged 62 +/- 8 years); 655 age-matched patients without CAD but with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia; and 595 age-matched healthy subjects without these risk factors. baPWV correlated well with aortic PWV (r=0.87, p<0.01). Pearson's correlation coefficients of interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility were r=0.98 and r=0.87, respectively. The corresponding coefficients of variation were 8.4% and 10.0%. baPWV were significantly higher in CAD patients than in non-CAD patients with risk factors, for both genders (p<0.01). In addition, baPWV were higher in non-CAD patients with risk factors than in healthy subjects without risk factors. Thus, the validity and reproducibility of baPWV measurements are considerably high, and this method seems to be an acceptable marker reflecting vascular damages. baPWV measured by this simple, noninvasive method is suitable for screening vascular damages in a large population.
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            Mechanical factors in arterial aging: a clinical perspective.

            The human arterial system in youth is beautifully designed for its role of receiving spurts of blood from the left ventricle and distributing this as steady flow through peripheral capillaries. Central to such design is "tuning" of the heart to arterial tree; this minimizes aortic pressure fluctuations and confines flow pulsations to the larger arteries. With aging, repetitive pulsations (some 30 million/year) cause fatigue and fracture of elastin lamellae of central arteries, causing them to stiffen (and dilate), so that reflections return earlier to the heart; in consequence, aortic systolic pressure rises, diastolic pressure falls, and pulsations of flow extend further into smaller vessels of vasodilated organs (notably the brain and kidney). Stiffening leads to increased left ventricular (LV) load with hypertrophy, decreased capacity for myocardial perfusion, and increased stresses on small arterial vessels, particularly of brain and kidney. Clinical manifestations are a result of diastolic LV dysfunction with dyspnea, predisposition to angina, and heart failure, and small vessel degeneration in brain and kidney with intellectual deterioration and renal failure. While aortic stiffening is the principal cause of cardiovascular disease with age in persons who escape atherosclerotic complications, it is not a specific target for therapy. The principal target is the smooth muscle in distributing arteries, whose relaxation has little effect on peripheral resistance but causes substantial reduction in the magnitude of wave reflection. Such relaxation is achieved through regular exercise and with the vasodilating drugs that are used in modern treatment of hypertension and cardiac failure.
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              Influences of age and gender on results of noninvasive brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity measurement--a survey of 12517 subjects.

              The present study was conducted to evaluate the influences of age and gender on the results of noninvasive brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). In 12517 subjects who had no medication and no history of cardiovascular diseases, multiple regression analysis demonstrated that age, blood pressure, body mass index, triglycerides, blood glucose, and uric acid were significant variables for baPWV in both genders. From this population, we extracted 7881 "healthy subjects" (4488 males and 3393 females, 25-87 years) without any of the atherogenic risk factors, and the results of baPWV were analyzed chronologically in 5-year age intervals. baPWV was lower in females than in males until age 60, and became similar in both genders over age 60. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that not only the value of R(2) but also the coefficient of the effect of age on baPWV are larger in females than in males. In the estimation of the regression curve, the relationship between age and baPWV demonstrated a quadratic curve in both genders. Thus, aging influences baPWV, and its effect is more prominent in female. Menopause seems to be the crucial phenomenon to explain the augmented increase in arterial stiffness with aging in females.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Atheroscler Thromb
                J. Atheroscler. Thromb
                jat
                jat
                Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
                Japan Atherosclerosis Society
                1340-3478
                1880-3873
                1 July 2020
                : 27
                : 7
                : 621-636
                Affiliations
                Department of Cardiology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Hirofumi Tomiyama, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, 160-0023 Tokyo, Japan E-mail: tomiyama@ 123456tokyo-med.ac.jp
                Article
                10.5551/jat.RV17041
                7406407
                32448827
                2020 Japan Atherosclerosis Society

                This article is distributed under the terms of the latest version of CC BY-NC-SA defined by the Creative Commons Attribution License. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 1, References: 156, Pages: 16
                Categories
                Review

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