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      Is There a Relation between Non-Calcifying Coronary Plaques and Acute Coronary Syndromes? A Retrospective Study Using Multislice Computed Tomography

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          Abstract

          Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess whether different coronary plaque types as classified by multislice computed tomography (CT) are retrospectively correlated with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in an unselected study population. Methods: Sixty-three consecutive patients were examined with 16-slice CT coronary angiography. Coronary plaque types were classified as calcifying type 1, mixed (calcifying > non-calcifying) type 2, mixed (non-calcifying > calcifying) type 3, and non-calcifying type 4. Patients who had an ACS within 17 days were included. All patients underwent invasive coronary angiography. Results: Fifty-eight patients (92%) had coronary plaques evaluated by CT: 18 type 1 (31%), 10 type 2 (17%), 16 type 3 (28%) and 14 type 4 (24%). The presence of a non-calcifying plaque component (types 2–4; 40 of 63 patients, 63%) was correlated with ACS (n = 15; 24%) (p < 0.001). Only type 3 was significantly correlated with ACS (p = 0.01), but plaque types 2 and 4 were not. The diagnostic accuracy of CT for detection of stenosis >50% in proximal segments was: sensitivity 98%, specificity 90%, negative predictive value 97%, positive predictive value 97% per patient. Conclusions: Mixed calcifying/non-calcifying plaques with a predominantly non-calcifying component (type 3) as classified by multislice CT are retrospectively correlated with ACS.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Effect of intensive compared with moderate lipid-lowering therapy on progression of coronary atherosclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

          Statin drugs reduce both atherogenic lipoproteins and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the optimal strategy and target level for lipid reduction remain uncertain. To compare the effect of regimens designed to produce intensive lipid lowering or moderate lipid lowering on coronary artery atheroma burden and progression. Double-blind, randomized active control multicenter trial (Reversal of Atherosclerosis with Aggressive Lipid Lowering [REVERSAL]) performed at 34 community and tertiary care centers in the United States comparing the effects of 2 different statins administered for 18 months. Intravascular ultrasound was used to measure progression of atherosclerosis. Between June 1999 and September 2001, 654 patients were randomized and received study drug; 502 had evaluable intravascular ultrasound examinations at baseline and after 18 months of treatment. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a moderate lipid-lowering regimen consisting of 40 mg of pravastatin or an intensive lipid-lowering regimen consisting of 80 mg of atorvastatin. The primary efficacy parameter was the percentage change in atheroma volume (follow-up minus baseline). Baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (mean, 150.2 mg/dL [3.89 mmol/L] in both treatment groups) was reduced to 110 mg/dL (2.85 mmol/L) in the pravastatin group and to 79 mg/dL (2.05 mmol/L) in the atorvastatin group (P<.001). C-reactive protein decreased 5.2% with pravastatin and 36.4% with atorvastatin (P<.001). The primary end point (percentage change in atheroma volume) showed a significantly lower progression rate in the atorvastatin (intensive) group (P =.02). Similar differences between groups were observed for secondary efficacy parameters, including change in total atheroma volume (P =.02), change in percentage atheroma volume (P<.001), and change in atheroma volume in the most severely diseased 10-mm vessel subsegment (P<.01). For the primary end point, progression of coronary atherosclerosis occurred in the pravastatin group (2.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2% to 4.7%; P =.001) compared with baseline. Progression did not occur in the atorvastatin group (-0.4%; CI -2.4% to 1.5%; P =.98) compared with baseline. For patients with coronary heart disease, intensive lipid-lowering treatment with atorvastatin reduced progression of coronary atherosclerosis compared with pravastatin. Compared with baseline values, patients treated with atorvastatin had no change in atheroma burden, whereas patients treated with pravastatin showed progression of coronary atherosclerosis. These differences may be related to the greater reduction in atherogenic lipoproteins and C- reactive protein in patients treated with atorvastatin.
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            Diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive coronary angiography using 64-slice spiral computed tomography.

            The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multislice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography using a new 64-slice scanner. The new 64-slice MSCT scanner has improved spatial resolution of 0.4 mm and a faster rotation time (330 ms) compared to prior MSCT scanners. We studied 70 consecutive patients undergoing elective invasive coronary angiography. Patients were excluded for atrial fibrillation, but not for high heart rate, coronary calcification, or obesity. All vessels were analyzed, including those 70 beats/min, and 50% were obese. Specificity, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values for the presence of significant stenoses were: by segment (n = 935), 86%, 95%, 66%, and 98%, respectively; by artery (n = 279), 91%, 92%, 80%, and 97%, respectively; by patient (n = 70), 95%, 90%, 93%, and 93%, respectively. Our results indicate high quantitative and qualitative diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MSCT in comparison to QCA in a broad spectrum of patients.
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              High-resolution spiral computed tomography coronary angiography in patients referred for diagnostic conventional coronary angiography.

              The diagnostic performance of the latest 64-slice CT scanner, with increased temporal (165 ms) and spatial (0.4 mm3) resolution, to detect significant stenoses in the clinically relevant coronary tree is unknown. We studied 52 patients (34 men; mean age, 59.6+/-12.1 years) with atypical chest pain, stable or unstable angina pectoris, or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction scheduled for diagnostic conventional coronary angiography. All patients had stable sinus rhythm. Patients with initial heart rates > or =70 bpm received beta-blockers. Mean scan time was 13.3+/-0.9 seconds. The CT scans were analyzed by 2 observers unaware of the results of invasive coronary angiography, which was used as the standard of reference. All available coronary segments, regardless of size, were included in the evaluation. Lesions with > or =50 luminal narrowing were considered significant stenoses. Invasive coronary angiography demonstrated the absence of significant disease in 25% (13 of 52), single-vessel disease in 31% (16 of 52), and multivessel disease in 45% (23 of 52) of patients. One unsuccessful CT scan was classified as inconclusive. Ninety-four significant stenoses were present in the remaining 51 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of CT for detecting significant stenoses on a segment-by-segment analysis were 99% (93 of 94; 95% CI, 94 to 99), 95% (601 of 631; 95% CI, 93 to 96), 76% (93 of 123; 95% CI, 67 to 89), and 99% (601 of 602; 95% CI, 99 to 100), respectively. Noninvasive 64-slice CT coronary angiography accurately detects coronary stenoses in patients in sinus rhythm and presenting with atypical chest pain, stable or unstable angina, or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2008
                June 2008
                12 December 2007
                : 110
                : 4
                : 241-248
                Affiliations
                Clinical Departments of aRadiology II and bCardiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria
                Article
                112407 Cardiology 2008;110:241–248
                10.1159/000112407
                18073479
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 2, References: 25, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Research

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