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      Evaluation of Intra-Renal Oxygenation by BOLD MRI

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          Abstract

          This is a review of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI as applied to the kidney. It has been shown that BOLD MRI measurements reflect changes in renal oxygenation, especially in the medulla. Renal medulla functions in a hypoxic milieu and is extremely sensitive to further decrease in blood flow or increase in oxygen consumption. Availability of a non-invasive technique such as BOLD MRI should allow for better understanding of the factors involved in the maintenance of renal oxygenation status, not only in animal models, but also in humans.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Hypoxia of the renal medulla--its implications for disease.

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            The Magnetic Properties and Structure of Hemoglobin, Oxyhemoglobin and Carbonmonoxyhemoglobin.

             C Coryell,  L PAULING (1936)
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              Reactive oxygen species cause diabetes-induced decrease in renal oxygen tension.

              Augmented formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hyperglycaemia has been suggested to contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus, as well as the effects of preventing excessive ROS formation by alpha-tocopherol treatment, on regional renal blood flow, oxygen tension and oxygen consumption in anaesthetized Wistar Furth rats. Non-diabetic and STZ-diabetic rats were investigated after 4 weeks with or without dietary treatment with the radical scavenger DL-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, 5%). A laser-Doppler technique was used to measure regional renal blood flow, whilst oxygen tension and consumption were measured using Clark-type microelectrodes. Renal oxygen tension, but not renal blood flow, was lower throughout the renal parenchyma of diabetic rats when compared to non-diabetic control rats. The decrease in oxygen tension was most pronounced in the renal medulla. Renal cellular oxygen consumption was markedly increased in diabetic rats, predominantly in the medullary region. Diabetes increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in the renal medulla. Treatment with alpha-tocopherol throughout the course of diabetes prevented diabetes-induced disturbances in oxidative stress, oxygen tension and consumption. The diabetic animals had a renal hypertrophy and a glomerular hyperfiltration, which were unaffected by alpha-tocopherol treatment. We conclude that oxidative stress occurs in kidneys of diabetic rats predominantly in the medullary region and relates to augmented oxygen consumption and impaired oxygen tension in the tissue.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8074-8
                978-3-318-01315-3
                1660-2110
                2006
                March 2006
                10 March 2006
                : 103
                : 2
                : c58-c65
                Affiliations
                Department of Radiology, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare, Evanston, Ill., USA
                Article
                90610 Nephron Clin Pract 2006;103:c58–c65
                10.1159/000090610
                16543757
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 60, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/90610
                Categories
                Radiologic Imaging

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